We examined physiological performance of F1 offspring in order to ensure a common garden environment for the entire embryonic and juvenile life phases. This approach does not fully account for the possibility of maternal or transgenerational effects but is a reasonable starting point for assessing intraspecific patterns of thermal performance. To produce F1 offspring for experimentation, we collected broodstock adult Urosalpinx from seven sites: five from the Atlantic and two from the Pacific that encompassed a wide range of their latitudinal distribution (Fig. 2). All collections were conducted from 15 March to 9 June 2019. We chose collection sites to be within 15 km of in situ environmental data loggers (e.g. National Data Buoy Center, National Estuarine Reserve System, NOAA Ocean Observing System; Table S1). At each site, we hand collected at least 30 adult male and female oyster drills in the extreme low intertidal and subtidal zones from both natural and artificial substrate, including oyster reefs, pier pilings and boulders, within a 30-meter radius. We then transported snails in aerated coolers of seawater from collection sites, kept cool with ice packs and separated by population. Water conditions within the coolers were monitored to maintain 100% dissolved oxygen saturation and temperature within 4°C of collection temperature. Samples from Humboldt Bay and Tomales Bay (Pacific populations) were collected in a similar fashion except that they were overnight mailed in plastic bags with saltwater-moistened paper towels but without seawater. Snails were kept cool with ice packs and upon arrival were immediately placed in holding tanks separated by population at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. No mortalities occurred as a result of collection or shipping.

Urosalpinx cinerea collection sites on the Atlantic and Pacific seaboards of the USA; mean sea surface temperature (SST) is an annual composite of 2018 5 km data (data source: NOAA/NESDIS Geo-Polar, Maturi et al., 2017; annual SST composite data from NOAA Coral Reef Watch 2018 v3.1).

We maintained Urosalpinx populations in a recirculating seawater system at 12°C (salinity 30 PSU) until they were needed for experimentation and as other populations were collected. Populations were kept separate in plastic aquaria with aeration. We fed broodstock Urosalpinx with blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), acorn barnacles (Semibalanus balanoides) and eastern oyster flesh (C. virginica) ad libitum. To induce egg case laying, we raised the system water temperature by 1°C/day until 20°C was reached and then moved all broodstock to an identical recirculating seawater system at the Gloucester Marine Station (UMass Amherst). We performed daily water changes on the broodstock recirculating system using ambient coastal seawater maintained at 20°C. We also monitored ammonia levels (API Mars Fishcare, Inc., Chalfont, PA) to ensure levels stayed below 0.25 ppm. Ammonia varied between 0 and 0.25 ppm with 1 spike to 0.5 ppm caused by overfeeding, remedied with daily water changes.

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