We used the snail U. cinerea (hereafter Urosalpinx) as our focal species because of its limited dispersal that drives a high potential for local adaptation, its wide range across latitude and thermal regimes and its tractability in the egg and juvenile life stages (Cheng et al., 2017). Urosalpinx undergoes direct development, laying benthic egg cases that each contain 4–16 embryos that develop for 26–56 days after which they emerge as hatchlings (Carriker, 1955). Because of this direct development, dispersal and gene flow are likely limited among populations, suggesting a high potential for local adaptation (Kawecki and Ebert, 2004). Further, we sampled populations from both the invaded and native ranges of Urosalpinx with the goal of understanding if trait performance differs between invaded and native populations under different thermal regimes (Zerebecki and Sorte, 2011). Urosalpinx is native on the Atlantic coast of North America from south Florida to Massachusetts and cryptogenic (of unknown origin) north to Nova Scotia (Fofonoff et al., 2020). In the late 1800s, Urosalpinx was introduced to multiple locations on the Pacific coast of North America, ranging from San Francisco Bay north to Puget Sound, via importation of Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica; Carriker, 1955; Fofonoff et al., 2020). The high biomass (1.7 million kg) and diverse origins of oysters transported to these Pacific sites (Hoos et al., 2010) indicate initial Urosalpinx populations were likely large, suggesting limited founder effects. In the invasive range, Urosalpinx can virtually eliminate native oysters and other native species via predation (Carriker, 1955; Kimbro et al., 2009; Cheng and Grosholz, 2016).

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