The ICs were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Prior to analysis, the samples were mounted on SEM cylindrical specimen mounts using adhesive tabs. These mounted samples were then coated with gold and palladium using a Polaron SC7640 Sputter Coater (Quorum Technologies, Lewes, UK) under automatic coating methods (Quorum Technologies, 2008). The prepared samples were observed and photographed using a JEOL LV-5900 scanning electron microscope (JEOL USA, Peabody, MA, USA) located at the Acadia Centre for Microstructural Analysis (ACMA) at Acadia University.

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