The following compounds were used for the preparation of betulin, and the synthesis of its derivatives: 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), acetic anhydride (Ac2O), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), tetrahydrofuran (THF), dichloromethane (DCM), palladium on carbon (10% Pd/C), pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC), 3-chloroperbenzoic acid (mCPBA), lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4), tert-butyl(chloro)diphenylsilane (TBDPSCl), purchased from Sigma Aldrich (Steinheim am Albuch, Germany), KOH, hexane, methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, MgSO4, ethanol, purchased from Chempur (Piekary Śląskie, Poland). All reagents were of analytical grade.

For the determination of the antioxidant activity and to assess the skin permeation of the compounds obtained: acetonitrile for HPLC was from J.T. Baker (Berlin, Germany). 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (TE), were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA); Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and gallic acid (GA), were from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany), potassium persulfate and chloride, sodium chloride, methanol, ethanol, acetone and phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH = 7.4) were purchased from Chempur (Piekary Śląskie, Poland). All reagents were of analytical grade.

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