ICs of three EOs in β-CD were prepared by two co-precipitation methods [1,6]. Encapsulated products were prepared based on a 1:1 molar ratio of β-CD to the main component present in the EO composition. Ethanol was used as a co-solvent. A summary of the prepared ICs is reported in Table 1.

Summary of essential oils and synthetic methods used to prepare β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

Initially, 0.0088 mol of β-CD was added to 100 mL of 1:2 ethanol:water and heated at 50–60 °C while stirring until fully dissolved. The β-CD solution was then cooled down to 30 °C. Then, 0.0088 mol of EO as determined using the main constituents was dissolved in EtOH at 10% v/v. The EO solution was added dropwise to the β-CD solution and stirred for 30 min. The precipitate formed was collected by suction filtration and left under vacuum for 1.5 h to dry. The product was then further dried in an oven at 50 °C for 1.5 h before being transferred to a glass vial and placed in a desiccator for storage until further use [6].

Initially, 0.0088 mol of β-CD was mixed in 100 mL of 1:2 ethanol:water and heated at 50–60 °C while stirring until fully dissolved. An equivalent molar amount (0.0088 mol) of EO determined from the main constituents was dissolved in EtOH at 10% (w/v). While maintaining stirring and heating of the β-CD solution, the EO solution was added dropwise. The mixture was left to stir for an additional 4 h, covered without heating. The mixture was stored overnight at 4 °C before collecting the precipitate by vacuum filtration and drying in an oven at 50 °C for 24 h before being transferred to a glass vial and placed in a desiccator for storage until further use [1].

A physical mixture of EO and β-CD was prepared in water for UV analysis. The amount of both were determined based on the required amount of EO required to obtain an absorbance of around 1 in the EO alone. The desired amount of EO and β-CD were each weighed into a 25 mL volumetric flask and diluted in water.

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