4.3. Nanotechnology Based Methods
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Nucleic Acid Testing of SARS-CoV-2
Int J Mol Sci, Jun 7, 2021; DOI: 10.3390/ijms22116150

Nanotechnology has already proven its value through its diagnostic, vaccine, and therapeutic applications that have expanded into clinical applications [195]. Scientists have shown that nucleic acid detection using nanomaterials for viral infectious diseases now have various advantages in the diagnostic field [196]. Moreover, nanomaterials are powerful tools for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of COVID-19 [197].

Magnetic nanoparticles have been used in RT-qPCR diagnosis for the extraction of viral RNA from SARS-CoV-2. This method merges the lysis and binding steps, and the poly (amino ester) with carboxyl groups (PC)-coated magnetic nanoparticles (pcMNPs)-RNA complexes can be directly introduced into RT-qPCR reactions [198]. In addition, a test has been developed to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 that can rapidly detect the virus. The test is performed using gold nanoparticles to detect specific proteins such as nucleocapsid phosphoprotein. In the presence of gold nanoparticles, the test is positive upon the color of the liquid reagent changing from purple to blue [199]. Nanoparticles that can be applied in the RT-qPCR diagnosis are shown in Figure 1E.

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