2.1. Study Design and Subjects Selection
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Factors Related to Depression Associated with Chewing Problems in the Korean Elderly Population
Int J Environ Res Public Health, Jun 7, 2021; DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18116158

This study used data from the KNHANES VI (VI-1, 2014) and VII (VII-1, 2016, and VII-3, 2018) surveys because the PHQ-9 was measured every two years [20]. The KNHANES is a nationally representative survey designed to investigate health and nutritional status; it has been conducted by the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) [21]. The KNHANES consists of health interviews, health examinations, and nutritional surveys. Among noninstitutionalized Korean citizens from South Korea, the subjects in the KNHANES participated based on a stratified multistage clustered probability design. Detailed information on the survey design of the KNHANES has been reported elsewhere [21]. Among 23,692 subjects (7550 in 2014, 8150 in 2016, and 7992 in 2018) in the KNHANES, 3747 subjects (weighted n = 6,348,653 including 2,883,195 men and 3,465,458 women) who were aged 65 years and older with no missing data concerning their chewing status- and depression-related variables and reported a plausible daily total energy consumption of ≥500 kcal and ≤5000 kcal were selected for this study. The KNHANES was approved by the Institutional Review Board of KCDC, and all participants provided written informed consent. Before analyzing the data from KNHANES, our study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Kunsan National University (IRB No. 1040117-202008-HR-015-01).

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