3.3.4. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)

The surface chemistry of ST-A and ST-B was determined by XPS using a KRATOS AXIS ULTRA (DLD) spectrometer (Shimadzu, Japan). The binding energy was scanned in a range of 0–800 eV for regions of S 2p, Cl 2p, Cl 2s, C 1s, N 1s, O 1s, and F 1s, and their average binding energy was 165.2, 198.1, 270.9, 282.2, 397.4, 529.1, and 685.6 eV, respectively. Surface atomic concentration was calculated from the corresponding peak area.

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