Synthesis of LiYF4:10%Er3+ (NaYF4:10%Er3+ and NaGdF4:10%Er3+)

In a typical procedure, a total of 0.1°mmol ErCl3•H2O and 0.9°mmol YCl3•H2O were added into a 100°ml flask containing 6°ml oleic acid and 15°ml octadecene. The mixture was heated to 160°C for 60°min then cooled down to room temperature. Subsequently, a solution of 4°mmol NH4F and 2.5°mmol LiOH (2.5°mmol NaOH for NaYF4:10%Er3+ and NaGdF4:10%Er3+) in 10°ml methanol was added and stirred for 30°min. The reaction mixture was then heated at 100°C for 30°min to remove the methanol, followed by heating up to 290°C (300°C for NaYF4:10%Er3+ and NaGdF4:10%Er3+) and keeping for 60°min before cooling down. A syringe needle was used to let the argon gas out during the synthesis. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and precipitated by excess ethanol and collected by centrifugation. The precipitate was washed with ethanol several times, and the nanocrystals were finally dispersed in hexane.

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