The size and morphology of the resulting nanoparticles were characterized by Hitachi 7700 electron microscope. Upconversion emission spectra in visible and NIR range were recorded using Horiba Fluoromax–4. Laser excitation at 1532 nm, which was purchased from Changchun New Industries Optoelectronics Technology Co., Ltd. The emission signal from the sample in the cuvette was collected at 90° relative to the exciting laser beam. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were recorded by a Bruker D8 Advance diffractometer using Cu Kα radiation. The 2θ angle of the XRD spectra was recorded at a scanning rate of 5°/min.

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