According to previous research, potential confounding variables including age, gender, household socioeconomic status, exercise duration, internet use time (for entertainment), midday napping, class rank [29], interpersonal relationship, smoking [13], drinking [30], and BMI [31] were selected. The household socioeconomic status was classified by the percentile of family per capita income as follows: 1 = low; 2 = moderate; 3 = high. The exercise duration was assessed by the question: “How much time in total do you exercise each week?” The responses were converted into minutes of exercise per day and classified as follows: <30 min; 30–60 min; >60 min. The internet use time (for entertainment) was assessed by the question: “How many hours per day do you spend on the Internet in your spare time?” The smoking and drinking status was assessed by the question: “Have you used at least one cigarette/drink during the recent month?” The responses were coded as follows: 1 = yes; 2 = no. The interpersonal relationship was classified as follows: 1 = poor, 2 = average, 3 = good. The class rank was assessed by the question: “How did you rank in your class on the last comprehensive examination?” The responses were classified as follows: 0–10%; 11–25%; 26–50%; 51–75%; 76–100%. The self-reported height and weight were calculated into BMI z-scores to determine the participant’s weight status. The age-gender-adjusted BMI standard deviation scores (BMI z-scores) were computed and distributed by referring to the WHO growth charts and the official WHO z-score calculator. Based on the WHO recommendation, overweight was defined as a BMI z-score > 1; obesity was defined as a BMI z-score > 2; normal weight was defined as a BMI z-score ≤ 1 or ≥ −2; underweight was defined as a BMI z-score < −2.

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