2.3. Clinical Evaluation
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Vertigo in Patients with Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy
J Clin Med, Jun 4, 2021; DOI: 10.3390/jcm10112496

Clinical neurological evaluation was focused on the assessment of clinical signs and symptoms of symptomatic myelopathy (with other possible causes excluded) and possible causes of vertigo. This included a detailed history of the illness, presence of comorbidities (cardiovascular including arterial hypertension, otorhinolaryngological and psychiatric abnormities, etc.), history of significant head or cervical spine trauma, Hallpike manoeuvre and a dedicated vertigo questionnaire (see below).

The following symptoms and signs were sought and/or determined as markers of DCM:


Gait disturbance;

Numb and/or clumsy hands;

Lhermitte’s phenomenon;

Bilateral arm paresthesias;

Weakness of lower or upper extremities;

Urinary urgency, or incontinence.


Corticospinal tract signs;



Pyramidal signs (Babinski reflex or Hoffman’s sign);

Spastic paresis of any of the extremities (most frequently, lower spastic paraparesis);

Flaccid paresis of one or two upper extremities;

Atrophy of the hand muscles;

Sensory involvement in various distributions in upper or lower extremities;

Gait ataxia.

The following clinical and demographic data were also noted:



Degree of disability was assessed by the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) score [10].

Note: The content above has been extracted from a research article, so it may not display correctly.

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