In the 2018 CFPS, the depression symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiology Scale for Depression (CES-D) [22]. Specifically, CES-D 8 (including two positive and six negative questions) was used [23], which contained four subscales: somatic symptoms, interpersonal relations, depressed affect, and positive affect. The respondents were asked to rate how they experienced the specified emotions or behaviors in the past week: (1) I felt depressed; (2) I felt that everything I did was an effort; (3) My sleep was restless; (4) I was happy; (5) I felt lonely; (6) I enjoyed life; (7) I felt sad; (8) I could not get “going.” The rating varied from 0 to 3 for each question (0 = never; 1 = sometimes, 1–2 days; 2 = often, 3–4 days; 3 = most of the time, 5–7 days). Responses to negative emotions were assigned 0, 1, 2, and 3, and responses to the two positive emotions were assigned 3, 2, 1, and 0. All the scores were aggregated on a scale of 0 to 24. Depression is a persistent phenomenon, and a higher score indicates a higher level of depressive symptoms. In this study, the score of 9 was set to be the cutoff point for clinically significant depressive symptoms [24]. At present, the CES-D is deemed a practical/reliable depression screening tool for the Chinese population, which has been validated and widely used by previous studies targeting Chinese adolescents [25,26]. The depressive symptoms in this study were diagnosed as one week after a depressive event according to the CES-D criteria rather than a diagnosis of depression. The Cronbach’s alpha of this study was 0.712, indicating good reliability.

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