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    A Blood-retina Barrier Permeability Assay in Young Mice Using Sulfo-NHS-LC-biotin Perfusion
    Authors:  Entzu Wan, Mitsutaka Ogawa and Tetsuya Okajima, date: 10/20/2018, view: 76, Q&A: 0
    Brain and retinal vasculatures exhibit restricted vascular permeability known as blood-brain barrier and blood-retina barrier. Vascular permeability can be evaluated by perfusion of the amine reactive ester derivatives of biotin such as ...
    Dissection and Whole Mount Staining of Retina from Neonatal Mice
    Authors:  Mitsutaka Ogawa and Tetsuya Okajima, date: 10/05/2018, view: 151, Q&A: 0
    Here we provide a detailed protocol for whole mount staining of mouse retina. This protocol was used to analyze retinal angiogenesis in newborn mice (Sawaguchi et al., 2017) by modifying the original protocols (Powner et al., 2012; ...
    Striatal Synaptosomes Preparation from Mouse Brain
    Authors:  Shiqi Ma and Alexander Sorkin, date: 09/05/2018, view: 234, Q&A: 0
    The striatum is located in the subcortical region of the forebrain, it contains medium spiny neurons, cholinergic interneurons and GABAergic interneurons, and receives dopaminergic projection in the nigrostriatal pathway. This protocol provides a ...
    Ty1 Retrotransposition Frequency Assay Using a Chromosomal Ty1his3AI or Ty1kanMXAI Element
    Author:  M. Joan Curcio, date: 09/05/2018, view: 170, Q&A: 0
    Here I describe a simple genetic assay to determine the frequency of retrotransposition of a single chromosomal Ty1 element that is marked with the retrotransposition indicator gene, his3AI or kanMXAI. The assay is used to ...
    Isolation of Murine Brain and Lung Microvascular Endothelial Cells
    Authors:  Ailing Zhang, Shogo Sawaguchi, Entzu Wan, Mitsutaka Ogawa and Tetsuya Okajima, date: 08/20/2018, view: 452, Q&A: 0
    This protocol describes how to isolate murine endothelial cells from newborn mice brain and 3-month-old mice lung by modifying the original protocols (Sobczak et al., 2010; Ruck et al., 2014). We have used the protocol to analyze ...
    Combinations of Patch-Clamp and Confocal Calcium Imaging in Acutely Isolated Adult Mouse Amygdala Brain Slices
    Authors:  Jianyang Du and Erin Elizabeth Koffman, date: 08/05/2018, view: 460, Q&A: 0
    Calcium imaging is a powerful technique in the study of neuronal physiology, as it avoids the enzyme treatment on neurons and is able to study the neuronal activities in vivo. Using calcium-imaging techniques, we are able to monitor the ...
    Protocol for the Isolation and Super-resolution dSTORM Imaging of RyR2 in Cardiac Myocytes
    Authors:  Yufeng Hou, Christopher Le, Christian Soeller and William E. Louch, date: 08/05/2018, view: 527, Q&A: 0
    Since its inception, super-resolution microscopy has played an increasingly important role in the discovery and characterization of nanoscale biological structure. dSTORM, which is one of the most commonly applied methods, relies on stochastic ...
    High-throughput YO-PRO-1 Uptake Assay for P2X7 Receptors Expressed in HEK Cells
    Authors:  Akira Karasawa and Toshimitsu Kawate, date: 07/20/2018, view: 648, Q&A: 0
    P2X7 receptors are extracellular ATP-gated ion channels that play broad physiological and pathological roles in animals (Sluyter, 2017). Activation of P2X7 receptors lead to the opening of membrane channels permeable for small cations like Na+ ...
    Overcoming Autofluorescence to Assess GFP Expression During Normal Physiology and Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Authors:  Alina C. Teuscher and Collin Y. Ewald, date: 07/20/2018, view: 1476, Q&A: 0
    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is widely used as a molecular tool to assess protein expression and localization. In C. elegans, the signal from weakly expressed GFP fusion proteins is masked by autofluorescence emitted from the intestinal ...
    Visualization of Growth and Morphology of Fungal Hyphae in planta Using WGA-AF488 and Propidium Iodide Co-staining
    Authors:  Amey Redkar, Elaine Jaeger and Gunther Doehlemann, date: 07/20/2018, view: 574, Q&A: 0
    Fungal pathogens colonizing plants show a varying degree of symptoms. Microscopy techniques have been used to study the infection and proliferation of fungal hyphae inside the host. One of the best optimized and commonly used method is the ...