• Volume 9, 2019
  • Volume 8, 2018
  • Volume 7, 2017
  • Volume 6, 2016
  • Volume 5, 2015
  • Volume 4, 2014
  • Volume 3, 2013
  • Volume 2, 2012
  • Volume 1, 2011

Cancer Biology

Detection of Tumor Cell Surface-reactive Antibodies Authors:  Brian M. Andersen, Michelle R. Goulart, Michael R. Olin and G. Elizabeth Pluhar, date: 05/05/2014, view: 5583, Q&A: 0
Vaccine-based immunotherapy is being used to treat dogs with primary brain tumors. The vaccines are composed of a lysate of autologous tumor cells, which stimulate an immune response producing tumor specific antibodies that are capable of inducing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity to allogeneic, as well as autologous, tumor cells. This ...
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Immunostaining Protocol: P-Smad2 (Xenograft and Mice) Authors:  Alexandre Calon, Elisa Espinet, Sergio Palomo-Ponce, Daniele V. F. Tauriello, Mar Iglesias, María Virtudes Céspedes, Marta Sevillano, Cristina Nadal, Peter Jung, Xiang H.-F. Zhang, Daniel Byrom, Antoni Riera, David Rossell, Ramón Mangues, Joan Massague, Elena Sancho and Eduard Batlle, date: 05/05/2014, view: 5114, Q&A: 0
Metastasis depends on a gene program expressed by the tumor microenvironment upon TGF-beta stimulation. CRC (Colorectal cancer) cell lines did not induce robust stromal TGF-beta responses when injected into nude mice as shown by lack of p-SMAD2 accumulation in tumor-associated stromal cells. To enforce high TGF-beta signaling in xenografts, we ...
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Immunostaining Protocol: P-Stat3 (Xenograft and Mice) Authors:  Alexandre Calon, Elisa Espinet, Sergio Palomo-Ponce, Daniele V. F. Tauriello, Mar Iglesias, María Virtudes Céspedes, Marta Sevillano, Cristina Nadal, Peter Jung, Xiang H.-F. Zhang, Daniel Byrom, Antoni Riera, David Rossell, Ramón Mangues, Joan Massague, Elena Sancho and Eduard Batlle, date: 05/05/2014, view: 6502, Q&A: 0
We sought to understand the mechanisms behind the potent effect of stromal TGF-beta program on the capacity of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to initiate metastasis. We discovered that mice subcutaneous tumors and metastases generated in the context of a TGF-beta activated microenvironment displayed prominent accumulation of p-STAT3 in CRC cells ...
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Transwell Co-culture of Bone Marrow Macrophages with Tumor Cells Authors:  Mackenzie K. Herroon and Izabela Podgorski, date: 05/05/2014, view: 14597, Q&A: 0
Bone is a primary site of metastasis from prostate and breast cancers. Bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) are mediators of inflammatory processes and are thought to promote tumor growth in the skeletal sites. In order to elucidate how their interactions with tumor cells impact aggressiveness of metastatic tumors in bone in vitro methods are ...
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Microbiology

Amino Acid Racemase Enzyme Assays Authors:  Atanas D. Radkov and Luke A. Moe, date: 05/05/2014, view: 6131, Q&A: 0
Amino acid racemases are enzymes that invert the α-carbon stereochemistry of amino acids (AAs), interconverting amino acids between their L- and D-enantiomers in a reversible reaction. In bacteria, they are known to have catabolic physiological functions but are also involved in the synthesis of many D-AAs, including D-glutamate and D-alanine, ...
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Extraction and Quantification of Poly P, Poly P Analysis by Urea-PAGE Author:  Maria R. Gomez Garcia, date: 05/05/2014, view: 6099, Q&A: 1
Inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) molecules, linear chains containing hundreds of orthophosphate (Pi) residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds are abundant in every cell in nature. These molecules are widely distributed among bacteria, including key pathogens, and eukaryotes, poly P is present in organelles, including nuclei, ...
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Minimal Bactericidal Concentration for Biofilms (MBC-B) Authors:  Nicole Billings and Katharina Ribbeck, date: 05/05/2014, view: 8111, Q&A: 1
A biofilm is a multicellular consortium of surface associated microbes surrounded by a hydrated, extracellular polymer matrix. The biofilm matrix plays a critical role in preventing desiccation, acquiring nutrients, and provides community protection from environmental assaults. Importantly, biofilms are significantly more resistant to ...
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Microfluidic-based Time-kill Kinetic Assay Authors:  Nicole Billings, Roberto Rusconi, Roman Stocker and Katharina Ribbeck, date: 05/05/2014, view: 8305, Q&A: 0
In many environments, bacteria favor a sessile, surface-attached community lifestyle. These communities, termed biofilms, are ubiquitous among many species of bacteria. In some cases, biofilms form under flow conditions. Flow chambers, and in particular microfluidic channels, can be used to observe biofilm development and physiological effects ...
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Enterovirus 71 Virus Propagation and Purification Authors:  Kristin L. Shingler, Lindsey J. Organtini and Susan Hafenstein, date: 05/05/2014, view: 9578, Q&A: 0
Since its discovery in 1969, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a serious worldwide health threat. This member of the picornavirus family causes hand, foot, and mouth disease, and also has the capacity to invade the central nervous system to cause severe disease and death. This is the propagation and purification procedure to produce infectious ...
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ELISA for Alpha-hemolysin (Hla) in Methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Authors:  Varandt Y. Khodaverdian and Menachem Shoham, date: 05/05/2014, view: 6378, Q&A: 0
Anti-virulence agents against MRSA inhibit the production of disease-causing virulence factors, such as alpha-hemolysin, but are neither bacteriostatic nor bactericidal. Here we discuss a rapid method to screen for MRSA anti-virulence agents by measuring alpha-hemolysin production through ELISA. This protocol can be used with other alpha-hemolysin ...
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In vitro Analysis for Macrophage Binding and Pro-inflammatory Responses to Candida albicans Author:  Mohlopheni J. Marakalala, date: 05/05/2014, view: 5894, Q&A: 0
Macrophage recognition of Candida albicans (C. albicans) is facilitated by pattern recognition receptors that interact with the fungal pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Dectin-1 is the major macrophage receptor that is known to recognize fungal Beta-glucans leading to induction of various immune responses. This ...
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Plant Science

Extraction and Measurement the Activities of Cytosolic Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (PEPCK) and Plastidic NADP-dependent Malic Enzyme (ME) on Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Authors:  Sonia Osorio, José G. Vallarino, Marek Szecowka, Shai Ufaz, Vered Tzin, Ruthie Angelovici, Gad Galili and Alisdair R. Fernie, date: 05/05/2014, view: 6994, Q&A: 0
A recent study demonstrated that cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) have an important role in malate metabolism during fruit ripening (Osorio et al., 2013). PEPCK catalyze the ATP-dependent decarboxylation of oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and NADP-ME, the reversible ...
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