• Volume 9, 2019
  • Volume 8, 2018
  • Volume 7, 2017
  • Volume 6, 2016
  • Volume 5, 2015
  • Volume 4, 2014
  • Volume 3, 2013
  • Volume 2, 2012
  • Volume 1, 2011

Biochemistry

HPLC Analysis of Secreted Organic Acids Authors:  Fiona K. Davies, Sarah D’Adamo and Matthew C. Posewitz, date: 04/20/2016, view: 6932, Q&A: 0
Under certain growth conditions some microorganisms secrete organic acids into the extracellular medium to relieve the accumulation of excess energy carriers, and/or to reduce toxic concentrations of organic acids. For example, a glycogen-deficient ∆glgC mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 secretes pyruvate, ...
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Visualization of Intracellular Tyrosinase Activity in vitro Authors:  Riddhi Atul Jani, Sudeshna Nag and Subba Rao Gangi Setty, date: 04/20/2016, view: 5311, Q&A: 0
Melanocytes produce the melanin pigments in melanosomes and these organelles protect the skin against harmful ultraviolet rays. Tyrosinase is the key cuproenzyme which initiates the pigment synthesis using its substrate amino acid tyrosine or L-DOPA (L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine). Moreover, the activity of tyrosinase directly correlates to the ...
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Microbiology

Identification and Characterization of Bacterial Chemoreceptors Using Quantitative Capillary and Gradient Plate Chemotaxis Assays Authors:  Jose Antonio Reyes-Darias, Vanina García, Miriam Rico-Jiménez, Andrés Corral-Lugo and Tino Krell, date: 04/20/2016, view: 7149, Q&A: 0
Bacterial chemotaxis is a motility-based response that biases cell movement toward beneficial molecules, called attractants, and away from harmful molecules, also known as repellents. Since the species of the genus Pseudomonas are characterized by a metabolic versatility, these bacteria have developed chemotactic behaviors towards a wide range of ...
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ACE-score-based Analysis of Temporal miRNA Targetomes During Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Using AGO-CLIP-seq Authors:  Sungchul Kim and Kwangseog Ahn, date: 04/20/2016, view: 6535, Q&A: 0
Although temporal regulation of gene expression during the course of infection is known to be critical for determining the outcome of host-virus interactions, systematic temporal analysis of the miRNA targetomes during productive viral infection has been technically challenging due to the large range of miRNA-mRNA cross-talks at the host-virus ...
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Measurement of Intracellular cAMP Levels Using the Cyclic Nucleotide XP Enzymatic Immunoassay Kit in Bacteria Authors:  Sarah K Giles, Uwe H Stroeher and Melissa H Brown, date: 04/20/2016, view: 7412, Q&A: 0
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a ubiquitous secondary signaling molecule, commonly associated with many bacterial processes, including the regulation of virulence factors, such as biofilms, pellicles and motility (Wolfgang, 2003). The quantity of available cAMP is controlled by the interplay between the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cAMP by ...
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Neuroscience

Aβ Extraction from Murine Brain Homogenates Authors:  Brad T. Casali and Gary E. Landreth, date: 04/20/2016, view: 6014, Q&A: 0
This protocol details beta-amyloid (Aβ) extraction from transgenic murine brain homogenates. Specifically, mechanical homogenization of brain tissue and sequential extraction of both soluble and insoluble proteins are detailed. DEA extracts soluble proteins, such as Aβ isoforms and APP. Formic acid enables extraction of insoluble protein ...
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Primary Neuron-glia Culture from Rat Cortex as a Model to Study Neuroinflammation in CNS Injuries or Diseases Authors:  Ya-Ni Huang and Jia-Yi Wang, date: 04/20/2016, view: 6499, Q&A: 0
Primary neuron-glia cultures are commonly used in vitro model for neurobiological studies. Here, we provide a protocol for the isolation and culture of neuron-glial cells from cortical tissues of 1-day-old neonatal Sprague-Dawley pups. The procedure makes available an easier way to obtain the neuron and glia. In this culture system, ...
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Phagocytosis Assay of Microglia for Dead Neurons in Primary Rat Brain Cell Cultures Authors:  Xiurong Zhao, Liyan Zhang, Shun-Ming Ting and Jaroslaw Aronowski, date: 04/20/2016, view: 6620, Q&A: 0
Clearance of dead brain tissue including the dead neurons through phagocytosis is an endogenous function of microglia in the brain, which is critical for inflammation resolution after ischemic stroke or head trauma. By regulating the function or polarization status of microglia, we may control their phagocytosis efficacy and therefore the cleanup ...
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Plant Science

Measuring the Interactions between Peroxisomes and Chloroplasts by in situ Laser Analysis Authors:  Kazusato Oikawa, Shoji Mano, Kenji Yamada, Yoichiro Hosokawa and Mikio Nishimura, date: 04/20/2016, view: 4961, Q&A: 0
Quantitative analysis has been necessary for deeply understanding characteristic of organelles function. This is the detailed protocol for the quantification of the physical interaction between peroxisomes and chloroplasts taken by laser scanning microscopy described by Oikawa et al. (2015). To clarify the morphological interactions ...
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Mating and Progeny Isolation in the Corn Smut Fungus Ustilago maydis Authors:  Marina Nadal, Johanna E. Takach, David L. Andrews and Scott E. Gold, date: 04/20/2016, view: 6342, Q&A: 0
The corn smut pathogen, Ustilago maydis (U. maydis) (DC.) Corda, is a semi-obligate plant pathogenic fungus in the phylum Basidiomycota (Alexopoulos et al., 1996). The fungus can be easily cultured in its haploid yeast phase on common laboratory media. However, to complete its sexual cycle U. maydis strictly requires its ...
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