• Volume 12, 2022
  • Volume 11, 2021
  • Volume 10, 2020
  • Volume 9, 2019
  • Volume 8, 2018
  • Volume 7, 2017
  • Volume 6, 2016
  • Volume 5, 2015
  • Volume 4, 2014
  • Volume 3, 2013
  • Volume 2, 2012
  • Volume 1, 2011


Pyridine Hemochromagen Assay for Determining the Concentration of Heme in Purified Protein Solutions Authors:  Ian Barr and Feng Guo, date: 09/20/2015, view: 29703, Q&A: 2
Heme is a common cofactor in proteins, found in hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochrome P450, DGCR8, and nitric oxide synthase, among others. This protocol describes a method for quantifying heme that works best in purified protein samples. This protocol might be used to, for example, determine whether a given heme-binding protein is fully occupied by ...
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Cell Biology

Morphological Quantification of Nuclei and Mitochondria in Serial Block-face Scanning Electron Microscopy Images Authors:  Haiyan Lu, Nobuhiko Ohno and Richard M. Ransohoff, date: 09/20/2015, view: 8369, Q&A: 0
Serial Block-face Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF-SEM or 3D-EM) is a powerful tool to study biological structure in ultrastructural level. Quantification of cellular ultrastructure is useful to providing biological information. This technique requires not only high quality of tissue fixation and ideal sample embedding to preserve structures, ...
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Measurement of Resting Energy Metabolism in Mice Using Oxymax Open Circuit Indirect Calorimeter Authors:  Yaohui Nie, Timothy P. Gavin and Shihuan Kuang, date: 09/20/2015, view: 10048, Q&A: 0
Indirect calorimeter is a powerful tool to monitor resting energy metabolism through the measurement of oxygen (O2) consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) production. From the measurement of VO2 and VCO2, the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) can be calculated to assess energy fuel utilization and energy ...
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Isolation of Persister Cells from Biofilm and Planktonic Populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Author:  Cláudia N. H. Marques, date: 09/20/2015, view: 11643, Q&A: 0
Persister cells are a stochastically produced sub-population of non-growing bacterial cells. Recently these cells have been more widely studied due to the recognition that they are tolerant to antimicrobials and thus, play a major role in the resilience of bacterial populations to antimicrobials, particularly in chronic biofilm infections. The ...
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Quantification of Respiratory Activity in Biofilms Authors:  Cláudia N. H. Marques and Scott A. Craver, date: 09/20/2015, view: 9682, Q&A: 1
Bacteria live mostly as biofilms, not as planktonic cell populations. Bacterial cells living as biofilms are known to be in different physiological status. Persister cells are one of such physiological conditions and they are recognized as to be a stochastically produced sub-population of non-growing bacterial cells. The following protocol ...
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Infection Assay of Cyst Nematodes on Arabidopsis Roots Authors:  Holger Bohlmann and Krzysztof Wieczorek, date: 09/20/2015, view: 10785, Q&A: 0
Plant parasitic nematodes are devastating pests on many crops. Juveniles (J2) of cyst nematodes invade the roots to induce a syncytium. This feeding site is their only source of nutrients. Male nematodes leave the roots after the fourth molt to mate with females. The females stay attached to their syncytia throughout their life and produce ...
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Detection and Visualization of Specific Gene Transcripts by in situ RT-PCR in Nematode-Infected Arabidopsis Root Tissue Author:  Krzysztof Wieczorek, date: 09/20/2015, view: 9110, Q&A: 0
This protocol describes an effective method of in situ RT-PCR that was developed to localize specific gene expression directly in thin cross-sections of nematode feeding sites induced by the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii (H. schachtii) or the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita) ...
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Chemotaxis and Jumping Assays in Nematodes Authors:  Tiffany Baiocchi and Adler R. Dillman, date: 09/20/2015, view: 10287, Q&A: 0
Nematodes have sensitive olfactory perception, which is used to detect and differentiate many volatile odorants. Some odorants are attractive, others repulsive, and yet others evoke no particular response. Chemotaxis assays can be used to determine the role of certain odors in many different behaviors including foraging, predator avoidance, and ...
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Isolation and Growth of Adult Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons Authors:  Seong-il Lee and Joel Levine, date: 09/20/2015, view: 23654, Q&A: 0
Adult dorsal root ganglia neurons are among the few adult neuronal cell types that can be purified and grown relatively easily in dissociated cell culture. Here we describe a procedure for the isolation and growth of dissociated adult mouse DRG neurons using Percoll gradients and a chemically defined medium. These cultures can be used for ...
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Plant Science

Detection of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Activation upon Exogenous Chemical Application in Arabidopsis Protoplasts Authors:  Arsheed Hussain Sheikh and Alok Krishna Sinha, date: 09/20/2015, view: 10798, Q&A: 0
The mitogen activated protein kinase cascade is a highly conserved signal pathway in plants. The exogenous chemicals, like hormones, can trigger a series of signalling cascades, including MAPK pathway, to modulate the plant physiology. Upon activation, some MAPKs are phosphorylated. It is important to develop methods that can detect changes in the ...
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[14C] Glucose Cell Wall Incorporation Assay for the Estimation of Cellulose Biosynthesis Authors:  Chad Brabham, Jozsef Stork and Seth Debolt, date: 09/20/2015, view: 6437, Q&A: 0
Cellulose is synthesized by Cellulose Synthase A proteins at the plasma membrane using the substrate UDP glucose. Herein, we provide a detailed method for measuring the incorporation of radiolabeled glucose into the cellulose fraction of the cell wall. In this method Arabidopsis seedlings are treated for 2 h with a cellulose biosynthesis ...
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Transverse Sectioning of Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves Using Resin Embedding Authors:  Shweta Kalve, Kumud Saini, Kris Vissenberg, Tom Beeckman and Gerrit T. S. Beemster, date: 09/20/2015, view: 12453, Q&A: 0
The leaf is the major functional part of the shoot performing the bulk of photosynthetic activity. Its development is relatively plastic allowing the plant to adapt to environmental changes by modifying leaf size and anatomy. Moreover, a leaf is made up of various distinct cell layers, each having specialized functions. To understand functional ...
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Telomere-mediated Chromosomal Truncation via Agrobacterium tumefaciens or Particle Bombardment to Produce Engineered Minichromosomes in Plants Authors:  Nathaniel D. Graham, Nathan C. Swyers, Robert T. Gaeta, Changzeng Zhao, Jon P. Cody and James A. Birchler, date: 09/20/2015, view: 8025, Q&A: 0
Minichromosomes are small, autonomously functioning chromosomes that exist separately from the normal chromosomal set. Creation of minichromosomes in plants relies on telomere truncation to remove the chromosome arms and the native telomere sequence and replace them with a transgene together with a new telomere sequence to generate a modifiable ...
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Physicochemical Quantification of Abscisic Acid Levels in Plant Tissues with an Added Internal Standard by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Author:  Scott A M McAdam, date: 09/20/2015, view: 11637, Q&A: 0
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is critical for a range of plant responses to the environment, most importantly in closing the stomata of seed plants during drought (Mittelheuser and Van Steveninck 1969; Brodribb et al. 2014). The high precision quantification of this hormone by physicochemical methods is a relatively simple process, ...
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Detection of the Cell Proliferation Zone in Leaves by Using EdU Authors:  Hokuto Nakayama, Kensuke Kawade, Hirokazu Tsukaya and Seisuke Kimura, date: 09/20/2015, view: 8052, Q&A: 0
Visualization of nuclei in S-phase cells in tissues is important for not only cell cycle research but also developmental research because morphogenesis is usually achieved by a combination of cell proliferation and cell expansion. Recently, DNA labeling with 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU), which is an analog of thymidine, has been used to ...
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5’ Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (5’ RACE) of Agrobacterial T-DNA Genes within Transformed Plant Sample Author:  Yi Zhang, date: 09/20/2015, view: 11343, Q&A: 0
The T-DNA (transferred-DNA) region of virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens) strain is transferred and integrated into the plant genome, and thereby the T-DNA genes are expressed in transformed plant cells. This protocol was used to analyze the transcription start sites (TSSs) of agrobacterial T-DNA genes within ...
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