• Volume 12, 2022
  • Volume 11, 2021
  • Volume 10, 2020
  • Volume 9, 2019
  • Volume 8, 2018
  • Volume 7, 2017
  • Volume 6, 2016
  • Volume 5, 2015
  • Volume 4, 2014
  • Volume 3, 2013
  • Volume 2, 2012
  • Volume 1, 2011
Image Credit: BioProtoc.4310

Past Issues in 2022

Volume: 12 Issue: 3

Cancer Biology

Developing Clinically Relevant Acquired Chemoresistance Models in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines Authors:  Priti S. Shenoy, Sourav Chakraborty, Snehal M. Gaikwad, Asmita Sakpal and Pritha Ray, date: 02/05/2022, view: 1366, Q&A: 0

Chemoresistance, the ability of cancer cells to overcome therapeutic interventions, is an area of active research. Studies on intrinsic and acquired chemoresistance have partly succeeded in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms in this elusive phenomenon. Hence, drug-resistant cellular models are routinely developed and used to mimic the

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Enrichment of Tyrosine Phosphorylated Peptides for Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Analysis of RTK Signaling Dynamics Authors:  Vidyasiri Vemulapalli, Stephen C. Blacklow, Steven P. Gygi and Alison Erickson, date: 02/05/2022, view: 1088, Q&A: 0

Cells sense and respond to mitogens by activating a cascade of signaling events, primarily mediated by tyrosine phosphorylation (pY). Because of its key roles in cellular homeostasis, deregulation of this signaling is often linked to oncogenesis. To understand the mechanisms underlying these signaling pathway aberrations, it is necessary to

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Studying Chemotactic Migration in Dunn Chamber: An Example Applied to Adherent Cancer Cells Authors:  Khedidja Benseddik and Kossay Zaoui, date: 02/05/2022, view: 960, Q&A: 0

Cell migration is a vital process in the development of multicellular organisms. When deregulated, it is involved in many diseases such as inflammation and cancer metastisation. Some cancer cells could be stimulated using chemoattractant molecules, such as growth factor Heregulin β1. They respond to the attractant or repellent gradients

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Cell Biology

A Hypersensitive Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Indicator (roGFP2-Prx1) Enables Continuous Measurement of Intracellular H2O2 during Cell Micro-cultivation Authors:  Veronica Gast, Verena Siewers and Mikael Molin, date: 02/05/2022, view: 1145, Q&A: 0

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a toxic oxidant produced as a byproduct of several biological processes. At too high levels of hydrogen peroxide cells will experience oxidative stress, leading to a cellular response to decrease its levels and to protect the cells. Previously, methods used to study and quantify intracellular H2O2 have been limited by

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Drug Discovery

Amber Suppression Technology for Mapping Site-specific Viral-host Protein Interactions in Mammalian Cells Authors:  Nur Firdaus Isa, Olivier Bensaude and Shona Murphy, date: 02/05/2022, view: 1097, Q&A: 0

Probing the molecular interactions of viral-host protein complexes to understand pathogenicity is essential in modern virology to help the development of antiviral therapies. Common binding assays, such as co-immunoprecipitation or pull-downs, are helpful in investigating intricate viral-host proteins interactions. However, such assays may miss

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Immunology

Investigation of Microvesicle Uptake by Mouse Lung-marginated Monocytes in vitro Authors:  Ying Ying Tan, Kieran P. O'Dea, Brijesh V. Patel and Masao Takata, date: 02/05/2022, view: 1461, Q&A: 0

Extracellular microvesicles (MVs) are released into the circulation in large numbers during acute systemic inflammation, yet little is known of their intravascular cell/tissue-specific interactions under these conditions. We recently described a dramatic increase in the uptake of intravenously injected MVs by monocytes marginated within the

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HiSAT: A Novel Method for the Rapid Diagnosis of Allergy Authors:  Hirotomo Shibaguchi and Yuki Yasutaka, date: 02/05/2022, view: 873, Q&A: 0

To identify causative substances for allergies to drugs or foods, the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) is currently widely used as in vitro test, but its accuracy is not satisfactory. We have developed a novel method designated high-sensitivity allergy test (HiSAT) for determining allergy expression by measuring cell kinetics, using the

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Microbiology

Listeria innocua Biofilm Assay Using NanoLuc Luciferase Authors:  Aleš Berlec, Nika Janež, Meta Sterniša, Anja Klančnik and Jerica Sabotič, date: 02/05/2022, view: 884, Q&A: 0

Biofilms serve as a bacterial survival strategy, allowing bacteria to persist under adverse environmental conditions. The non-pathogenic Listeria innocua is used as a surrogate organism for the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, because they share genetic and physiological similarities and can be used in a Biosafety Level 1 laboratory.

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Cytopathic Effect Assay and Plaque Assay to Evaluate in vitro Activity of Antiviral Compounds Against Human Coronaviruses 229E, OC43, and NL63 Authors:  Yanmei Hu, Chunlong Ma and Jun Wang, date: 02/05/2022, view: 1346, Q&A: 0

Coronaviruses are important human pathogens, among which the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for the COVID-19 pandemic. To combat the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there is a pressing need for antivirals, especially broad-spectrum antivirals that are active against all seven human coronaviruses (HCoVs).

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Neuroscience

Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion with an Intraluminal Suture Enables Reproducible Induction of Ischemic Stroke in Mice Authors:  Luke R. Lemmerman, Hallie N. Harris, Maria H.H. Balch, Maria A. Rincon-Benavides, Natalia Higuita-Castro, W. David Arnold and Daniel Gallego-Perez, date: 02/05/2021, view: 1277, Q&A: 0

Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of mortality and chronic disability worldwide, underscoring the need for reliable and accurate animal models to study this disease’s pathology, molecular mechanisms of injury, and treatment approaches. As most clinical strokes occur in regions supplied by the middle cerebral artery (MCA), several

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Induction of Repeated Social Defeat Stress in Rats Authors:  Soumyabrata Munshi, Alexandra Ritger and J. Amiel Rosenkranz, date: 02/05/2022, view: 716, Q&A: 0

Repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) is a model of chronic stress in rodents. There are several variants of social defeat procedures that exert robust effects in mice, but few published detailed protocols to produce a robust stress and altered immunological profile in rats. In this article, we describe the protocol for the induction of RSDS in

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Large-scale Analysis of Sleep in Zebrafish Authors:  Daniel A. Lee, Grigorios Oikonomou and David A. Prober, date: 02/05/2022, view: 1396, Q&A: 0

Over the past decade, zebrafish have emerged as a powerful model for the study of vertebrate sleep and wake behaviors. Experimental evidence has demonstrated behavioral, anatomical, genetic, and pharmacological conservation of sleep between zebrafish and mammals, suggesting that discoveries in zebrafish can inform our understanding of mammalian

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Stem Cell

Efficient Method to Differentiate Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Macrophages in vitro Authors:  Qimin Hai, Juying Han, Sophia Wells and Jonathan D. Smith, date: 02/05/2022, view: 1334, Q&A: 0

Macrophages are key cells in the innate immune system and play a role in a variety of diseases. However, macrophages are terminally differentiated and difficult to manipulate genetically via transfection or through CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. To overcome this limitation, we provide a simplified protocol for the generation of mouse embryonic stem

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