• Volume 11, 2021
  • Volume 10, 2020
  • Volume 9, 2019
  • Volume 8, 2018
  • Volume 7, 2017
  • Volume 6, 2016
  • Volume 5, 2015
  • Volume 4, 2014
  • Volume 3, 2013
  • Volume 2, 2012
  • Volume 1, 2011
Image Credit: BioProtoc.3975

Past Issues in 2021

Volume: 11 Issue: 7

Biochemistry

Expression and Purification of the Human Cation-chloride Cotransporter KCC1 from HEK293F Cells for Structural Studies Authors:  Si Liu and Jiangtao Guo, date: 04/05/2021, view: 584, Q&A: 0

Cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) mediate the coupled, electroneutral symport of cations such as Na+ and/or K+ with chloride across membrane. Among CCCs family, K-Cl cotransporters (KCC1-KCC4) extrude intracellular Cl- by the transmembrane K+ gradient. In humans, these KCCs play vital roles in the physiology of the nervous system and kidney.

...
More >>

Biophysics

FRET-based Microscopy Assay to Measure Activity of Membrane Amino Acid Transporters with Single-transporter Resolution Authors:  Didar Ciftci, Gerard H. M. Huysmans, Xiaoyu Wang, Changhao He, Daniel Terry, Zhou Zhou, Gabriel Fitzgerald, Scott C. Blanchard and Olga Boudker, date: 04/05/2021, view: 2527, Q&A: 0

Secondary active transporters reside in cell membranes transporting polar solutes like amino acids against steep concentration gradients, using electrochemical gradients of ions as energy sources. Commonly, ensemble-based measurements of radiolabeled substrate uptakes or transport currents inform on kinetic parameters of transporters. Here we

...
More >>
Developing Biohybrid Robotic Jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) for Free-swimming Tests in the Laboratory and in the Field Authors:  Nicole W. Xu, James P. Townsend, John H. Costello, Sean P. Colin, Brad J. Gemmell and John O. Dabiri, date: 04/05/2021, view: 1844, Q&A: 0

Biohybrid robotics is a growing field that incorporates both live tissues and engineered materials to build robots that address current limitations in robots, including high power consumption and low damage tolerance. One approach is to use microelectronics to enhance whole organisms, which has previously been achieved to control the locomotion of

...
More >>

Cancer Biology

Atomic Force Microscopy to Characterize Ginger Lipid-Derived Nanoparticles (GLDNP) Authors:  Dingpei Long, Chunhua Yang, Junsik Sung and Didier Merlin, date: 04/05/2021, view: 2578, Q&A: 0

We have demonstrated that a specific population of ginger-derived nanoparticles (GDNP-2) could effectively target the colon, reduce colitis, and alleviate colitis-associated colon cancer. Naturally occurring GDNP-2 contains complex bioactive components, including lipids, proteins, miRNAs, and ginger secondary metabolites (gingerols and shogaols).

...
More >>

Developmental Biology

Analysis of TORC1-body Formation in Budding Yeast Authors:  Ryan L. Wallace, Eric Lu, Arron Sullivan, James E. Hughes Hallett and Andrew P. Capaldi, date: 04/05/2021, view: 1756, Q&A: 0

The Target of Rapamycin kinase Complex I (TORC1) is the master regulator of cell growth and metabolism in eukaryotes. In the presence of pro-growth hormones and abundant nutrients, TORC1 is active and drives protein, lipid, and nucleotide synthesis by phosphorylating a wide range of proteins. In contrast, when nitrogen and/or glucose levels fall,

...
More >>
A Workflow for High-pressure Freezing and Freeze Substitution of the Caenorhabditis elegans Embryo for Ultrastructural Analysis by Conventional and Volume Electron Microscopy Authors:  Mohammad M. Rahman, Irene Y. Chang, Orna Cohen-Fix and Kedar Narayan, date: 04/05/2021, view: 2807, Q&A: 0

The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a popular model system for studying developmental biology. Here we describe a detailed protocol to high-pressure freeze the C. elegans embryo (either ex vivo after dissection, or within the intact worm) followed by quick freeze substitution. Processed samples are suitable for ultrastructural

...
More >>

Immunology

A Potent Vaccine Delivery System Authors:  Guangzu Zhao, Armira Azuar, Istvan Toth and Mariusz Skwarczynski, date: 04/05/2021, view: 2391, Q&A: 0

Most vaccines require co-delivery of an adjuvant in order to generate the desired immune responses. However, many currently available adjuvants are non-biodegradable, have limited efficacy, and/or poor safety profile. Thus, new adjuvants, or self-adjuvanting vaccine delivery systems, are required. Here, we proposed a self-adjuvanting delivery

...
More >>
Brain-localized and Intravenous Microinjections in the Larval Zebrafish to Assess Innate Immune Response Authors:  Alison M. Rojas and Celia E. Shiau, date: 04/05/2021, view: 1892, Q&A: 0

Creating a robust and controlled infection model is imperative for studying the innate immune response. Leveraging the particular strengths of the zebrafish model system, such as optical transparency, ex utero development, and large clutch size, allows for the development of methods that yield consistent and reproducible results. We created a

...
More >>
Using the Cecal Ligation and Puncture Model of Sepsis to Induce Rats to Multiple Organ Dysfunction Authors:  Jose Manuel Condor Capcha, Roberto S. Moreira, Camila E. Rodrigues, Marcelo A. D. Silveira, Lucia Andrade and Samirah A. Gomes, date: 04/05/2021, view: 1911, Q&A: 0

Sepsis is a dysregulated hyperinflammatory disease caused by infection. Sepsis leads to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), which is associated with high rates of mortality. The cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model has been widely used in animals and has become the gold-standard method of replicating features of sepsis in humans.

...
More >>
Ex vivo Assessment of Mitochondrial Function in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Using XF Analyzer Authors:  Alica Schöller-Mann, Katja Matt, Barbara Hochecker and Jörg Bergemann, date: 04/05/2021, view: 1689, Q&A: 0

Cellular health and function, as we know today, depend on a large extent on mitochondrial function. The essential function of mitochondria is the energy production, more precisely ATP production, via oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial energy production parameters therefore represent important biomarkers. Studies on human cells have mainly

...
More >>

Molecular Biology

Reconstitution of Chromatin by Stepwise Salt Dialysis Authors:  Grisel Cruz-Becerra and James T. Kadonaga, date: 04/05/2021, view: 1397, Q&A: 0

Chromatin, rather than plain DNA, is the natural substrate of the molecular machines that mediate DNA-directed processes in the nucleus. Chromatin can be reconstituted in vitro by using different methodologies. The salt dialysis method yields chromatin that consists of purified histones and DNA. This biochemically pure chromatin is well-suited for

...
More >>

Neuroscience

Imaging Microtubules in vitro at High Resolution while Preserving their Structure Authors:  Camille Cuveillier, Yasmina Saoudi, Isabelle Arnal and Christian Delphin, date: 04/05/2021, view: 723, Q&A: 0

Microtubules (MT) are the most rigid component of the cytoskeleton. Nevertheless, they often appear highly curved in the cellular context and the mechanisms governing their overall shape are poorly understood. Currently, in vitro microtubule analysis relies primarily on electron microscopy for its high resolution and Total Internal Reflection

...
More >>
Cranioplastic Surgery and Acclimation Training for Awake Mouse fMRI Authors:  Tomokazu Tsurugizawa, Kota Tamada, Clement Debacker, Andrew Zalesky and Toru Takumi, date: 04/05/2021, view: 725, Q&A: 0

MRI is a promising tool for translational research to link brain function and structure in animal models of disease to patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. However, given that mouse functional MRI (fMRI) typically relies on anesthetics to suppress head motion and physiological noise, it has been difficult to directly compare brain fMRI in

...
More >>

Plant Science

In vitro Reconstitution Assays of Arabidopsis 20S Proteasome Authors:  Yanjun Li, Di Sun, Xingxing Yan, Zhiye Wang and Xiuren Zhang, date: 04/05/2021, view: 2770, Q&A: 0

The majority of cellular proteins are degraded by the 26S proteasome in eukaryotes. However, intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), which contain large portions of unstructured regions and are inherently unstable, are degraded via the ubiquitin-independent 20S proteasome. Emerging evidence indicates that plant IDP homeostasis may also be

...
More >>
A Novel Method to Construct Binary CRISPR Vectors for Plant Transformation by Single Round of PCR Amplification Authors:  Kang Li, Yuhui Wang and Chuanying Fang, date: 04/05/2021, view: 2436, Q&A: 0

CRISPR/Cas9 is an established and flexible tool for genome editing. However, most methods used to generate expression clones for the CRISPR/Cas9 are time-consuming. Hence, we have developed a one-step protocol to introduce sgRNA expression cassette(s) directly into binary vectors (Liu et al., 2020). In this approach, we have optimized the

...
More >>
Measurements of Root Colonized Bacteria Species Authors:  Vílchez Juan Ignacio, Yu Yang, Dian Yi and Huiming Zhang, date: 04/05/2021, view: 1919, Q&A: 0

Root-associated bacteria are able to influence plant fitness and vigor. A key step in understanding the belowground plant-bacteria interactions is to quantify root colonization by the bacteria of interest. Probably, genetic engineering with fluorescence markers is the most powerful way to monitor bacterial strains in plant. However, this could

...
More >>
We use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience. By using our website, you are agreeing to allow the storage of cookies on your computer.