• Volume 10, 2020
  • Volume 9, 2019
  • Volume 8, 2018
  • Volume 7, 2017
  • Volume 6, 2016
  • Volume 5, 2015
  • Volume 4, 2014
  • Volume 3, 2013
  • Volume 2, 2012
  • Volume 1, 2011

Past Issues in 2020

Volume: 10 Issue: 5

Biochemistry

Production, Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Biotinylated Phytochrome B for Extracellular Optogenetics Authors:  Maximilian Hörner, O. Sascha Yousefi, Wolfgang W. A. Schamel and Wilfried Weber, date: 03/05/2020, view: 831, Q&A: 0
In the field of extracellular optogenetics, photoreceptors are applied outside of cells to obtain systems with a desired functionality. Among the diverse applied photoreceptors, phytochromes are the only ones that can be actively and reversibly switched between the active and inactive photostate by the illumination with cell-compatible red and ...
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Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Activity Assay in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Authors:  Louise Thines and Pierre Morsomme, date: 03/05/2020, view: 793, Q&A: 0
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) act as a primary defence against reactive oxygen species (ROS) by converting superoxide anion radicals (O2-) into molecular oxygen (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Members of this enzyme family include CuZnSODs, MnSODs, FeSODs, and NiSODs, depending on the nature ...
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Assembly of Genetic Circuits with the Mammalian ToolKit Authors:  João P. Fonseca, Alain R Bonny, Jason Town and Hana El-Samad, date: 03/05/2020, view: 947, Q&A: 0
The ability to rapidly assemble and prototype cellular circuits is vital for biological research and its applications in biotechnology and medicine. The Mammalian ToolKit (MTK) is a Golden Gate-based cloning toolkit for fast, reproducible and versatile assembly of large DNA vectors and their implementation in mammalian models. The MTK consists of ...
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Developmental Biology

Lipid Mixing Assay for Murine Myoblast Fusion and Other Slow Cell-cell Fusion Processes Authors:  Evgenia Leikina, Kamran Melikov, Anthony G. Rabinovich, Douglas P. Millay and Leonid V. Chernomordik, date: 03/05/2020, view: 733, Q&A: 0
Lipid mixing (redistribution of lipid probes between fusing membranes) has been widely used to study early stages of relatively fast viral and intracellular fusion processes that take seconds to minutes. Lipid mixing assays are especially important for identification of hemifusion intermediates operationally defined as lipid mixing without content ...
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Immunology

Zebrafish Bacterial Infection Assay to Study Host-Pathogen Interactions Authors:  Faiza Basheer, Clifford Liongue and Alister C Ward, date: 03/05/2020, view: 757, Q&A: 0
The study of host-pathogen interactions has improved our understanding of both pathogenesis and the response of the host to infection, including both innate and adaptive responses. Neutrophils and macrophages represent the first line of innate host defense against any infection. The zebrafish is an ideal model to study the response of these cells ...
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Optogenetic Tuning of Ligand Binding to The Human T cell Receptor Using The opto-ligand-TCR System Authors:  O. Sascha Yousefi, Maximilian Hörner, Maximilian Wess, Vincent Idstein, Wilfried Weber and Wolfgang W. A. Schamel, date: 03/05/2020, view: 971, Q&A: 0
T cells are one major cell type of the immune system that use their T cell antigen receptor (TCR) to bind and respond to foreign molecules derived from pathogens. The ligand-TCR interaction half-lives determine stimulation outcome. Until recently, scientists relied on mutating either the TCR or its ligands to investigate how varying TCR-ligand ...
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Microbiology

Growth Recovery Assay and FACS-based Population Sorting Following Territorial Exclusion in Proteus mirabilis Authors:  Murray J. Tipping and Karine A. Gibbs, date: 03/05/2020, view: 797, Q&A: 0
Many bacteria take part in self recognition and kin discrimination behavior using contact-dependent effectors. Understanding the effects these effectors cause is important to explain bacterial community formation and population dynamics. Typically, kin discrimination effectors are toxins that kill target cells; their effect is therefore obvious ...
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Contemporaneous Measurement of Outer and Inner Membrane Permeability in Gram-negative Bacteria Authors:  Bo Ma, Chao Fang, Jing Zhang, Mingzhi Wang, Xiaoxing Luo and Zheng Hou, date: 03/05/2020, view: 696, Q&A: 0
The emergence and rapid spread of multidrug resistance in bacteria have led to the urgent need for novel antibacterial agents. Membrane permeabilization is the mechanism for many antibacterial molecules that are being developed against gram-negative bacteria. Thus, to determine the efficacy of a potential antibacterial molecule, it is important to ...
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Molecular Biology

Cell-free Reconstitution of the Packaging of Cargo Proteins into Vesicles at the trans Golgi Network Authors:  Xiao Tang, Feng Yang and Yusong Guo, date: 03/05/2020, view: 784, Q&A: 0
Protein sorting at the trans Golgi network (TGN) plays important roles in targeting newly synthesized proteins to their specific destinations. The aim of this proposal is to reconstitute the packaging of non-Golgi resident cargo proteins into vesicles at the TGN, utilizing rat liver cytosol, semi-intact mammalian cells and nucleotides. ...
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Neuroscience

Delayed Alternation Task for the Study of Spatial Working and Long Term Memory in Rats Authors:  Megi Hoxha and Marta Sabariego, date: 03/05/2020, view: 932, Q&A: 0
Memory systems can hold previously presented information for several seconds, bridging gaps between discontinuous events. It has been previously demonstrated that the hippocampus and the medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) are necessary for memory retention over delay intervals in alternation tasks. Here we describe the delayed alternation task, a ...
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Plant Science

Tandem Tag Assay Optimized for Semi-automated in vivo Autophagic Activity Measurement in Arabidopsis thaliana roots Authors:  Adrian N. Dauphinee, Jonas A. Ohlsson and Elena A. Minina, date: 03/05/2020, view: 922, Q&A: 0
Autophagy is the main catabolic process in eukaryotes and plays a key role in cell homeostasis. In vivo measurement of autophagic activity (flux) is a powerful tool for investigating the role of the pathway in organism development and stress responses. Here we describe a significant optimization of the tandem tag assay for detection of ...
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Insect Feeding Assays with Spodoptera exigua on Arabidopsis thaliana Authors:  Yanrong You, Chunpeng An and Chuanyou Li, date: 03/05/2020, view: 771, Q&A: 0
Plant-insect interaction is an important field for studying plant immunity. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is one of the best-known agricultural pest insects and is usually used to study plant interactions with chewing insects. Here, we describe a protocol for insect feeding assays with Spodoptera exigua lavae using model ...
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Quantification of Protein Enrichment at Plasmodesmata Authors:  Magali S. Grison, Jules D. Petit, Marie Glavier and Emmanuelle M. Bayer, date: 03/05/2020, view: 782, Q&A: 0
Intercellular communication plays a crucial role in the establishment of multicellular organisms by organizing and coordinating growth, development and defence responses. In plants, cell-to-cell communication takes place through nanometric membrane channels called plasmodesmata (PD). Understanding how PD dictate cellular connectivity greatly ...
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Single-run HPLC Quantification of Plant Cell Wall Monosaccharides Authors:  Alexandra Menna, Michaela Fischer-Stettler, Barbara Pfister, Gloria Sancho Andrés, Duncan Holbrook-Smith and Clara Sánchez-Rodríguez, date: 03/05/2020, view: 562, Q&A: 0
The plant cell wall is a complex network of polysaccharides and proteins that provides strength and structural integrity to plant cells, as well as playing a vital role in growth, development, and defense response. Cell wall polysaccharides can be broadly grouped into three categories: cellulose, pectins, and hemicelluloses. Dynamic interactions ...
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Systems Biology

mRNA Extraction from Gill Tissue for RNA-sequencing Authors:  Jukka-Pekka Verta and Felicity Jones, date: 03/05/2020, view: 745, Q&A: 0
Adaptation is thought to proceed in part through spatial and temporal changes in gene expression. Fish species such as the threespine stickleback are powerful vertebrate models to study the genetic architecture of adaptive changes in gene expression since divergent adaptation to different environments is common, they are abundant and easy to study ...
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