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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Quantitative Electron Microscopic Assay Using Random Sampling from Single Sections to Test Plastic Synaptic Changes in Hippocampus
    Authors:  G. Mark Marcello, Lilla E. Szabó, Peter Sotonyi and Bence Rácz, date: 08/05/2018, view: 86, Q&A: 0
    Studies over several decades on the organization of the CA1 hippocampus–a particularly favorable model for learning, memory and certain forms of cognition–have shown that the synaptic network in this brain region is plastic (Fortin et al., ...
    Quantitative Electron Microscopic Assay Using Random Sampling from Single Sections to Test Plastic Synaptic Changes in Hippocampus
    Authors:  G. Mark Marcello, Lilla E. Szabó, Peter Sotonyi and Bence Rácz, date: 08/05/2018, view: 86, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Studies over several decades on the organization of the CA1 hippocampus–a particularly favorable model for learning, memory and certain forms of cognition–have shown that the synaptic network in this brain region is plastic (Fortin et al., 2012). Recent evidence suggests that a number of environmental and endogenous stimuli may have a ...
    Assessing Experience-dependent Tuning of Song Preference in Fruit Flies (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Authors:  Xiaodong Li, Hiroshi Ishimoto and Azusa Kamikouchi, date: 07/20/2018, view: 240, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In songbirds and higher mammals, early auditory experience during childhood is critical to detect and discriminate sound patterns in adulthood. However, the neural and molecular nature of this acquired ability remains elusive. Here, we describe a new behavioral paradigm with Drosophila melanogaster to investigate how the auditory ...
    Embryonic Intravitreous Injection in Mouse
    Authors:  Liyuan Cui, Yupu Diao and Jiayi Zhang, date: 07/20/2018, view: 163, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) relay visual information from the retina to lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and superior colliculus (SC), which are two major image-forming visual nuclei. Wiring of these retinal projections completes before vision begins. However, there are few studies on retinal axons at embryonic stage due to technical ...
    Ex vivo Whole-cell Recordings in Adult Drosophila Brain
    Authors:  Alexa J. Roemmich, Soleil S. Schutte and Diane K. O’Dowd, date: 07/20/2018, view: 269, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Cost-effective and efficient, the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) has been used to make many key discoveries in the field of neuroscience and to model a number of neurological disorders. Great strides in understanding have been made using sophisticated molecular genetic tools and behavioral assays. Functional analysis of neural ...
    α-Synuclein Aggregation Monitored by Thioflavin T Fluorescence Assay
    Authors:  Michael M. Wördehoff and Wolfgang Hoyer, date: 07/20/2018, view: 359, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Studying the aggregation of amyloid proteins like α-synuclein in vitro is a convenient and popular tool to gain kinetic insights into aggregation as well as to study factors (e.g., aggregation inhibitors) that influence it. These aggregation assays typically make use of the fluorescence dye Thioflavin T as a sensitive ...
    Evaluating Working Memory on a T-maze in Male Rats
    Authors:  Ahmed M. Hussein, Mekite Bezu and Volker Korz, date: 07/20/2018, view: 309, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Working memory is short-term memory, so temporal improvement does not reflect the consolidation of a memory trace, rather the functionality of the underlying neuronal circuits and molecular signaling cascades. The administration of drugs–either one-time or through daily injection–can elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The T-maze is especially ...
    Preparation of Cerebellum Granule Neurons from Mouse or Rat Pups and Evaluation of Clostridial Neurotoxin Activity and Their Inhibitors by Western Blot and Immunohistochemistry
    Authors:  Domenico Azarnia Tehran and Marco Pirazzini, date: 07/05/2018, view: 411, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Cerebellar Granule Neurons (CGN) from post-natal rodents have been widely used as a model to study neuronal development, physiology and pathology. CGN cultured in vitro maintain the same features displayed in vivo by mature cerebellar granule cells, including the development of a dense neuritic network, neuronal activity, ...
    Brain Tissue Culture of Per2::Luciferase Transgenic Mice for ex vivo Bioluminescence
    Authors:  Nora L. Salaberry and Jorge Mendoza, date: 07/05/2018, view: 372, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In circadian research, it is essential to be able to track a biological rhythm for several days with the minimum perturbation for the organisms or tissues. The use of transgenic mice lines, in which the luciferase reporter is coupled to a molecular clock protein (here PERIOD2), gives us the opportunity to follow the circadian activity in different ...
    Protocols to Study Declarative Memory Formation in Mice and Humans: Optogenetics and Translational Behavioral Approaches
    [Abstract] Declarative memory formation depends on the hippocampus and declines in aging. Two functions of the hippocampus, temporal binding and relational organization (Rawlins and Tsaltas, 1983; Eichenbaum et al., 1992; Cohen et al., 1997), are known to decline in aging (Leal and Yassa, 2015). However, in the literature distinct ...
    Buried Food-seeking Test for the Assessment of Olfactory Detection in Mice
    [Abstract] The sense of smell allows animals to discriminate a large number of volatile environmental chemicals. Such chemical signaling modulates the behavior of several species that depend on odorant compounds to locate food, recognize territory, predators, and toxic compounds. Olfaction also plays a role in mate choice, mother-infant recognition, and ...