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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Quantification of Blumenol Derivatives as Leaf Biomarkers for Plant-AMF Association
    Authors:  Elisabeth Mindt, Ming Wang, Martin Schäfer, Rayko Halitschke and Ian T. Baldwin, date: 07/20/2019, view: 35, Q&A: 0
    Symbiotic interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plants are widespread among land plants and can be beneficial for both partners. The plant is provided with mineral nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous, whereas it provides ...
    Isolation of Powdery Mildew Haustoria from Infected Barley
    Authors:  Linhan Li, Benjamin Collier and Pietro D. Spanu, date: 07/20/2019, view: 30, Q&A: 0
    Blumeria graminis is a fungus that causes powdery mildews on grasses, such as barley. Investigations of this pathogen present many challenges due to its obligate biotrophic nature. This means that the fungus can only grow in the presence ...
    Evaluation of Genotoxicity by Micronucleus Assay in vitro and by Allium cepa Test in vivo
    Authors:  Christina N. Banti and Sotiris K. Hadjikakou, date: 07/20/2019, view: 44, Q&A: 0
    The in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of new metallodrugs either as Small Bioactive Molecules (SBAMs) or Conjugates of Metals with Drugs (CoMeDs) is evaluated by the micronucleus test and the Allium cepa assay, ...
    Quantification of Blumenol Derivatives as Leaf Biomarkers for Plant-AMF Association
    Authors:  Elisabeth Mindt, Ming Wang, Martin Schäfer, Rayko Halitschke and Ian T. Baldwin, date: 07/20/2019, view: 35, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Symbiotic interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plants are widespread among land plants and can be beneficial for both partners. The plant is provided with mineral nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous, whereas it provides carbon resources for the fungus in return. Due to the large economic and environmental impact, ...
    Isolation of Powdery Mildew Haustoria from Infected Barley
    Authors:  Linhan Li, Benjamin Collier and Pietro D. Spanu, date: 07/20/2019, view: 30, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Blumeria graminis is a fungus that causes powdery mildews on grasses, such as barley. Investigations of this pathogen present many challenges due to its obligate biotrophic nature. This means that the fungus can only grow in the presence of a living host plant. B. graminis forms epiphytic mycelia on the plant surface and feeding ...
    Evaluation of Genotoxicity by Micronucleus Assay in vitro and by Allium cepa Test in vivo
    Authors:  Christina N. Banti and Sotiris K. Hadjikakou, date: 07/20/2019, view: 44, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of new metallodrugs either as Small Bioactive Molecules (SBAMs) or Conjugates of Metals with Drugs (CoMeDs) is evaluated by the micronucleus test and the Allium cepa assay, respectively. Fetal lung fibroblast cells (MRC-5), normal human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) and ...
    Transient Expression Assay in Strawberry Fruits
    Authors:  Mengting Pi, Qi Gao and Chunying Kang, date: 06/05/2019, view: 500, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Strawberry, including the woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca (2x) and the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, 8x), has emerged as a model system for studying fruit development and ripening. Transient expression provides a quick assay for gene functions or gene interactions. In strawberry, ...
    Simple Method to Determine Protein Redox State in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Authors:  Keisuke Yoshida and Toru Hisabori, date: 06/05/2019, view: 553, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Thiol-based redox regulation is a posttranslational protein modification that plays a key role in many biological aspects. To understand its regulatory functions, we need a method to directly assess protein redox state in vivo. Here we present a simple procedure to determine protein redox state in a model plant Arabidopsis thaliana ...
    An Adjustable Protocol to Analyze Chemical Profiles of Non-sterile Rhizosphere Soil
    Authors:  Alex Williams, Jurriaan Ton and Pierre Pétriacq, date: 05/20/2019, view: 760, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The analysis of chemical diversity in non-sterile rhizosphere soil has been a pressing methodological challenge for years. Rhizosphere-enriched chemicals (i.e., rhizochemicals) include root exudation chemicals, (microbial) breakdown products thereof, and de novo produced metabolites by rhizosphere-inhabiting microbes, all of ...
    An Improved Bioassay to Study Arabidopsis Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) Against Bacterial Pathogens and Insect Pests
    Authors:  Nicolás M. Cecchini, Yi Song, Suruchi Roychoudhry, Jean T. Greenberg and Cara H. Haney, date: 05/20/2019, view: 1019, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The plant immune system is essential for plants to perceive and defend against bacterial, fungal and insect pests and pathogens. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) is a systemic immune response that occurs upon root colonization by beneficial microbes. A well-studied model for ISR is the association of specific beneficial strains of Pseudomonas ...
    Determination of Root Exudate Concentration in the Rhizosphere Using 13C Labeling
    Authors:  Laurent Simon and Feth el Zahar Haichar, date: 05/05/2019, view: 576, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] One of the most remarkable metabolic features of plant roots is their ability to secrete a wide range of compounds into the rhizosphere, defined as the volume of soil around living roots. Around 5%-21% of total photosynthetically fixed carbon is transferred into the rhizosphere through root exudates. Until recently, studies on the quantity and ...
    Tracking Root Interactions System (TRIS) Experiment and Quality Control
    Authors:  Hassan Massalha, Elisa Korenblum, Orr H. Shapiro and Asaph Aharoni, date: 04/20/2019, view: 961, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Soil organisms are diverse taxonomically and functionally. This ecosystem experiences highly complex networks of interactions, but may also present functionally independent entities. Plant roots, a metabolically active hotspot in the soil, take an essential part in shaping the rhizosphere. Tracking the dynamics of root-microbe interactions at high ...
    Quantification of the Humidity Effect on HR by Ion Leakage Assay
    Authors:  Musoki Mwimba and Xinnian Dong, date: 04/05/2019, view: 626, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] We describe a protocol to measure the contribution of humidity on cell death during the effector-triggered immunity (ETI), the plant immune response triggered by the recognition of pathogen effectors by plant resistance genes. This protocol quantifies tissue cell death by measuring ion leakage due to loss of membrane integrity during the ...



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