Cell Biology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Buoyant Density Fractionation of Small Extracellular Vesicle Sub-populations Derived from Mammalian Cells
    Authors:  Morayma M. Temoche-Diaz, Matthew J. Shurtleff and Randy Schekman, date: 08/05/2020, view: 325, Q&A: 0
    Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) encompass a variety of distinct vesicles that are secreted to the extracellular space. Many methodologies currently used for EV isolation (e.g., differential ultracentrifugation concluding in a high-speed ...
    Generation of Functional Mouse Hippocampal Neurons
    Authors:  Francesco Tomassoni-Ardori, Zhenyi Hong, Gianluca Fulgenzi and Lino Tessarollo, date: 08/05/2020, view: 453, Q&A: 0
    Primary culture of mouse hippocampal neurons is a very useful in vitro model for studying neuronal development, axonal and dendritic morphology, synaptic functions, and many other neuronal features. Here we describe a step-by-step process ...
    In vivo Blood-brain Barrier Permeability Assays Using Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin
    Authors:  Michael R. Mazzucco, Timothy Vartanian and Jennifer R. Linden, date: 08/05/2020, view: 222, Q&A: 0
    In order for the brain to function properly, a carefully orchestrated homeostasis must be maintained. To help regulate this delicate balance, the brain has developed a highly selective blood-brain barrier (BBB). Under normal conditions, the BBB ...
    Mechanical Tissue Compression and Whole-mount Imaging at Single Cell Resolution for Developing Murine Epididymal Tubules
    Author:  Tsuyoshi Hirashima, date: 08/05/2020, view: 389, Q&A: 0
    Cells inside the body are subjected to various mechanical stress, such as stretch or compression provided by surrounding cells, shear stresses by blood or lymph flows, and normal stresses by luminal liquids. Force loading to the biological tissues ...
    Measuring Intracellular Vesicle Density and Dispersion Using Fluorescence Microscopy and ImageJ/FIJI
    Cell signalling, cell secretion, and plasma membrane repair are processes that critically rely on intracellular vesicles, important components of the endocytic and secretory pathways. More specifically, the strategic distribution of intracellular ...
    Flow Cytometry of CD14, VDR, Cyp27 and Cyp24 and TLR4 in U937 Cells
    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients present a micro inflammation state due to failure renal function. The calcitriol has been described as an anti-inflammatory factor that might modulates the inflammatory response in CKD patients. However, these ...
    A Quantitative Single-cell Flow Cytometry Assay for Retrograde Membrane Trafficking Using Engineered Cholera Toxin
    Authors:  Mariska Simpson, Wayne I. Lencer and Phi Luong, date: 08/05/2020, view: 383, Q&A: 0
    The organization and distribution of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids in eukaryotic cells is an essential process for cell function. Retrograde trafficking from the plasma membrane to the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum can greatly modify cell ...
    Development of the Deoxycorticosterone Acetate (DOCA)-salt Hypertensive Rat Model
    Authors:  Nayara Pestana-Oliveira, David B. Nahey, Tim Johnson and John P. Collister, date: 08/05/2020, view: 147, Q&A: 0
    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), nearly 1.13 billion people worldwide have hypertension, a major factor responsible for premature death globally. The inherent multifactorial nature of hypertension makes its study difficult since the ...
    Buoyant Density Fractionation of Small Extracellular Vesicle Sub-populations Derived from Mammalian Cells
    Authors:  Morayma M. Temoche-Diaz, Matthew J. Shurtleff and Randy Schekman, date: 08/05/2020, view: 325, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) encompass a variety of distinct vesicles that are secreted to the extracellular space. Many methodologies currently used for EV isolation (e.g., differential ultracentrifugation concluding in a high-speed pellet, precipitation by macromolecular crowding agents or size excusion chromatography–SEC) do not ...
    Generation of Functional Mouse Hippocampal Neurons
    Authors:  Francesco Tomassoni-Ardori, Zhenyi Hong, Gianluca Fulgenzi and Lino Tessarollo, date: 08/05/2020, view: 453, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Primary culture of mouse hippocampal neurons is a very useful in vitro model for studying neuronal development, axonal and dendritic morphology, synaptic functions, and many other neuronal features. Here we describe a step-by-step process of generating primary neurons from mouse embryonic hippocampi (E17.5/E18.5). Hippocampal neurons ...
    In vivo Blood-brain Barrier Permeability Assays Using Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin
    Authors:  Michael R. Mazzucco, Timothy Vartanian and Jennifer R. Linden, date: 08/05/2020, view: 222, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In order for the brain to function properly, a carefully orchestrated homeostasis must be maintained. To help regulate this delicate balance, the brain has developed a highly selective blood-brain barrier (BBB). Under normal conditions, the BBB excludes harmful blood-borne material from the brain parenchyma. However, numerous neuropathological ...
    Mechanical Tissue Compression and Whole-mount Imaging at Single Cell Resolution for Developing Murine Epididymal Tubules
    Author:  Tsuyoshi Hirashima, date: 08/05/2020, view: 389, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Cells inside the body are subjected to various mechanical stress, such as stretch or compression provided by surrounding cells, shear stresses by blood or lymph flows, and normal stresses by luminal liquids. Force loading to the biological tissues is a fundamental method to better understand cellular responses to such mechanical stimuli. There ...
    Measuring Intracellular Vesicle Density and Dispersion Using Fluorescence Microscopy and ImageJ/FIJI
    [Abstract] Cell signalling, cell secretion, and plasma membrane repair are processes that critically rely on intracellular vesicles, important components of the endocytic and secretory pathways. More specifically, the strategic distribution of intracellular vesicles is important for diverse cellular processes. The method presented here is a simple, ...
    Flow Cytometry of CD14, VDR, Cyp27 and Cyp24 and TLR4 in U937 Cells
    [Abstract] Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients present a micro inflammation state due to failure renal function. The calcitriol has been described as an anti-inflammatory factor that might modulates the inflammatory response in CKD patients. However, these patients have deficiency of Calcitriol due to failure renal function. But, synthesis of this vitamin ...
    A Quantitative Single-cell Flow Cytometry Assay for Retrograde Membrane Trafficking Using Engineered Cholera Toxin
    Authors:  Mariska Simpson, Wayne I. Lencer and Phi Luong, date: 08/05/2020, view: 383, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The organization and distribution of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids in eukaryotic cells is an essential process for cell function. Retrograde trafficking from the plasma membrane to the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum can greatly modify cell membrane composition and intracellular protein dynamics, and thus typifies a key sorting step. ...
    Development of the Deoxycorticosterone Acetate (DOCA)-salt Hypertensive Rat Model
    Authors:  Nayara Pestana-Oliveira, David B. Nahey, Tim Johnson and John P. Collister, date: 08/05/2020, view: 147, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] According to the World Health Organization (WHO), nearly 1.13 billion people worldwide have hypertension, a major factor responsible for premature death globally. The inherent multifactorial nature of hypertension makes its study difficult since the chronic rise in blood pressure depends on the intricate connection between dietary, genetic ...
    Metabolomic and Lipidomic Analysis of Bone Marrow Derived Macrophages
    Authors:  Gretchen L. Seim, Steven V. John and Jing Fan, date: 07/20/2020, view: 325, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Macrophages are highly plastic immune cells that are capable of adopting a wide array of functional phenotypes in response to environmental stimuli. The changes in macrophage function are often supported and regulated by changes in cellular metabolism. Capturing a comprehensive picture of metabolism is vital for understanding the role of metabolic ...
    Gene Expression and Genome Editing Systems by Direct Delivery of Macromolecules Into Rice Egg Cells and Zygotes
    Authors:  Erika Toda and Takashi Okamoto, date: 07/20/2020, view: 304, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Polyethylene glycol calcium (PEG-Ca2+)-mediated transfection allows rapid and efficient examination to analyze diverse cellular functions of genes of interest. In plant cells, macromolecules, such as DNA, RNA and protein, are delivered into protoplasts derived from somatic tissues or calli via PEG-Ca2+ transfection. To ...



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