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Biochemistry

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    Host-regulated Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Assembly in a Mammalian Cell-free System
    Authors:  Kuancheng Liu and Jianming Hu, date: 04/20/2018, view: 94, Q&A: 0
    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important global human pathogen and represents a major cause of hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. The HBV capsid is composed of multiple copies of a single viral protein, the capsid or core protein (HBc), ...
    FACS-based Glucose Uptake Assay of Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts and Breast Cancer Cells Using 2-NBDG Probe
    Authors:  Shengli Dong and Suresh K Alahari, date: 04/20/2018, view: 109, Q&A: 0
    This is a flow cytometry-based protocol to measure glucose uptake of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and breast cancer cells in vitro. The method is a slightly modified and updated version as previously described (Dong et al., ...
    Determination of Intracellular Osmolytes in Cyanobacterial Cells
    Authors:  Xiaoming Tan, Kuo Song, Cuncun Qiao and Xuefeng Lu, date: 04/20/2018, view: 62, Q&A: 0
    Most of the cyanobacteria accumulate osmolytes including sucrose, glucosylglycerol, in their cells in response to salt stress. Here we describe a protocol of our laboratory for extraction and quantification of cyanobacterial intracellular sucrose ...
    Laminarin Quantification in Microalgae with Enzymes from Marine Microbes
    Authors:  Stefan Becker and Jan-Hendrik Hehemann, date: 04/20/2018, view: 139, Q&A: 0
    The marine beta-glucan laminarin is an abundant storage polysaccharide in microalgae. High production rates and rapid digestion by heterotrophic bacteria turn laminarin into an ideal carbon and energy source, and it is therefore a key player in the ...
    Extraction of Small Molecules from Fecal Samples and Testing of Their Activity on Microbial Physiology
    Authors:  Eduardo S. Alves, Rosana B. R. Ferreira and L. Caetano M. Antunes, date: 04/20/2018, view: 71, Q&A: 0
    The human body is colonized by vast communities of microbes, collectively known as microbiota, or microbiome. Although microbes colonize every surface of our bodies that is exposed to the external environment, the biggest collection of microbes ...
    Qualitative Analysis of Lipid Peroxidation in Plants under Multiple Stress Through Schiff’s Reagent: A Histochemical Approach
    Lipid peroxidation is a physiological indicator of both biotic and abiotic stress responses, hence is often used as a biomarker to assess stress-induced cell damage or death. Here we demonstrate an easy, quick and cheap staining method to assess ...
    Host-regulated Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Assembly in a Mammalian Cell-free System
    Authors:  Kuancheng Liu and Jianming Hu, date: 04/20/2018, view: 94, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important global human pathogen and represents a major cause of hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. The HBV capsid is composed of multiple copies of a single viral protein, the capsid or core protein (HBc), plays multiple roles in the viral life cycle, and has emerged recently as a major target for ...
    FACS-based Glucose Uptake Assay of Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts and Breast Cancer Cells Using 2-NBDG Probe
    Authors:  Shengli Dong and Suresh K Alahari, date: 04/20/2018, view: 109, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] This is a flow cytometry-based protocol to measure glucose uptake of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and breast cancer cells in vitro. The method is a slightly modified and updated version as previously described (Dong et al., 2017). Briefly, the target cells are incubated with the fluorescently tagged ...
    Determination of Intracellular Osmolytes in Cyanobacterial Cells
    Authors:  Xiaoming Tan, Kuo Song, Cuncun Qiao and Xuefeng Lu, date: 04/20/2018, view: 62, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Most of the cyanobacteria accumulate osmolytes including sucrose, glucosylglycerol, in their cells in response to salt stress. Here we describe a protocol of our laboratory for extraction and quantification of cyanobacterial intracellular sucrose and glucosylglycerol. We have confirmed this protocol was applicable to at least four kinds of ...
    Laminarin Quantification in Microalgae with Enzymes from Marine Microbes
    Authors:  Stefan Becker and Jan-Hendrik Hehemann, date: 04/20/2018, view: 139, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The marine beta-glucan laminarin is an abundant storage polysaccharide in microalgae. High production rates and rapid digestion by heterotrophic bacteria turn laminarin into an ideal carbon and energy source, and it is therefore a key player in the marine carbon cycle. As a main storage glucan laminarin also plays a central role in the energy ...
    Extraction of Small Molecules from Fecal Samples and Testing of Their Activity on Microbial Physiology
    Authors:  Eduardo S. Alves, Rosana B. R. Ferreira and L. Caetano M. Antunes, date: 04/20/2018, view: 71, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The human body is colonized by vast communities of microbes, collectively known as microbiota, or microbiome. Although microbes colonize every surface of our bodies that is exposed to the external environment, the biggest collection of microbes colonizing humans and other mammals can be found in the gastrointestinal tract. Given the fact that the ...
    Qualitative Analysis of Lipid Peroxidation in Plants under Multiple Stress Through Schiff’s Reagent: A Histochemical Approach
    [Abstract] Lipid peroxidation is a physiological indicator of both biotic and abiotic stress responses, hence is often used as a biomarker to assess stress-induced cell damage or death. Here we demonstrate an easy, quick and cheap staining method to assess lipid peroxidation in plant tissues. In this methodology, Schiff’s reagent, is used to assay for ...
    In vitro Nitrate Reductase Activity Assay from Arabidopsis Crude Extracts
    Authors:  Joo Yong Kim and Hak Soo Seo, date: 04/05/2018, view: 186, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Nitrate reductase (NR) reduces the major plant nitrogen source, NO3-, into NO2-. NR activity can be measured by its final product, nitrite through its absorbance under optimized condition. Here, we present a detailed protocol for measuring relative enzyme activity of NR from Arabidopsis crude ...
    Bacterial Competition Assay Based on Extracellular D-amino Acid Production
    Authors:  Laura Alvarez and Felipe Cava, date: 04/05/2018, view: 195, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Bacteria live in polymicrobial communities under tough competition. To persist in a specific niche many species produce toxic extracellular effectors as a strategy to interfere with the growth of nearby microbes. One of such effectors are the non-canonical D-amino acids. Here we describe a method to test the effect of D-amino acid production in ...
    Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Assay Using Fluorescent MANT-GDP
    Authors:  Tomoharu Kanie and Peter K. Jackson, date: 04/05/2018, view: 247, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] GTPases are molecular switches that cycle between the inactive GDP-bound state and the active GTP-bound state. GTPases exchange nucleotides either by its intrinsic nucleotide exchange or by interaction with guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Monitoring the nucleotide exchange in vitro, together with reconstitution of direct ...
    Measuring Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Odor Gradient for Small Animals by Gas Chromatography
    Authors:  Akiko Yamazoe-Umemoto, Yuishi Iwasaki and Koutarou D. Kimura, date: 04/05/2018, view: 381, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Odor is the most fundamental chemical stimulus that delivers information regarding food, mating partners, enemies, and danger in the surrounding environment. Research on odor response in animals is widespread, although studies on experimental systems in which the gradient of odor concentration is quantitatively measured has been quite limited. ...