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    Protocols in Current Issue
    K+ Release Assay and K+ Measurement in Oocyte Assay
    Author:  Hong Li, date: 11/05/2020, view: 556, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The Xenopus oocyte is a powerful system for the exogenous expression and functional characterization of plant membrane transport proteins. Until now, a number of potassium transporters and channels have been identified in oocytes expression system by the two-electrode voltage clamp technology. It is difficult to characterize K+ ...
    Probe-Seq: Method for RNA Sequencing of Specific Cell Types from Animal Tissue
    [Abstract] Most organs and tissues are composed of many types of cells. To characterize cellular state, various transcription profiling approaches are currently available, including whole-tissue bulk RNA sequencing, single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq), and cell type-specific RNA sequencing. What is missing in this repertoire is a simple, versatile method ...
    Long-term Devocalization of Zebra Finches
    Authors:  Yunbok Kim, Daisuke Mizuguchi and Satoshi Kojima, date: 09/20/2020, view: 714, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Songbirds, such as the zebra finch, are a popular animal model for studying the neural basis of vocal and complex skill learning. Adult male zebra finches produce courtship song toward females (referred to as ‘directed song’) and recording and analyzing sounds of directed song along with underlying neural activity is important for investigating ...
    Minimally Invasive Oral Surgery Induction of the FRICT-ION Chronic Neuropathic Pain Model
    Authors:  Marena A. Montera and Karin N. Westlund, date: 04/20/2020, view: 1143, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] An easily induced preclinical trigeminal neuropathic nerve injury model is described here for the study of chronic pain, the model acronym FRICT-ION (Foramen Rotundum Inflammatory Constriction Trigeminal InfraOrbital Nerve). In patients, neuropathic pain is thought to be related to ...
    Fractionation of Ovarian Follicles and in vitro Oocyte Maturation and Ovulation Assay of Ciona intestinalis Type A
    Authors:  Shin Matsubara, Akira Shiraishi, Tomohiro Osugi, Tsuyoshi Kawada and Honoo Satake, date: 04/05/2020, view: 1355, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Ascidians are the closest living relatives of vertebrates (Delsuc et al., 2006; Satoh et al., 2014) and are important for the evolutionary study of the ovarian follicle development including oocyte maturation and ovulation. However, neither the endogenous factors nor the molecular mechanisms underlying the oocyte maturation and ...
    The Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) Assay as a Three-dimensional Model to Study Autophagy in Cancer Cells
    Authors:  Félice A. Janser, Patricia Ney, Marta Teixeira Pinto, Rupert Langer and Mario P. Tschan, date: 07/05/2019, view: 3690, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is an extra-embryonic organ and thus well accessible for seeding and harvesting 3D cell cultures. Samples from CAM assays are suitable for protein and gene expression analysis as well as for immuno-histochemical studies. Here we present the CAM assay as a possible model to study autophagy in different types ...
    Microplastic Extraction from Marine Vertebrate Digestive Tracts, Regurgitates and Scats: A Protocol for Researchers from All Experience Levels
    Authors:  Amy L. Lusher and Gema Hernandez-Milian, date: 11/20/2018, view: 5982, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] It is essential to provide a protocol for the separation and identification of microplastics in marine vertebrates (mammals, birds, turtles and fish) that is easy to follow and adaptable depending on research infrastructure. Digesting organic material is an effective way to analyze samples for microplastics. Presented here is an optimized protocol ...
    Studying the Mechanisms of Developmental Vocal Learning and Adult Vocal Performance in Zebra Finches through Lentiviral Injection
    Authors:  Zhimin Shi, Ofer Tchernichovski and XiaoChing Li, date: 09/05/2018, view: 3265, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Here we provide a detailed step-by-step protocol for using lentivirus to manipulate miRNA expression in Area X of juvenile zebra finches and for analyzing the consequences on song learning and song performance. This protocol has four parts: 1) making the lentiviral construct to overexpress miRNA miR-9; 2) packaging the lentiviral vector; 3) ...
    Xenopus laevis Oocytes Preparation for in-Cell EPR Spectroscopy
    Authors:  Laura John and Malte Drescher, date: 04/05/2018, view: 4650, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] One of the most exciting perspectives for studying bio-macromolecules comes from the emerging field of in-cell spectroscopy, which enables to determine the structure and dynamics of bio-macromolecules in the cell. In-cell electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in combination with micro-injection of bio-macromolecules into Xenopus ...
    Boron Uptake Assay in Xenopus laevis Oocytes
    Authors:  Sheliang Wang, Namiki Mitani-Ueno and Junpei Takano, date: 03/05/2018, view: 4656, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Boron (B) is essential for plant growth and taken up by plant roots as boric acid. Under B limitation, B uptake and translocation in plants are dependent on the boric acid channels located in the plasma membrane. Xenopus leavis oocyte is a reliable heterologous expression system to characterize transport activities of boric acid channels ...



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