Immunology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Skin Transplantation and Lymphoid Organ Analysis in Mice
    Skin transplantation in mice is an important procedure to evaluate immune responses generated against heterologous grafts, especially given its highly immunogenic nature. In fact, skin is one of the most challenging organs in terms of allograft ...
    Skin Transplantation and Lymphoid Organ Analysis in Mice
    [Abstract] Skin transplantation in mice is an important procedure to evaluate immune responses generated against heterologous grafts, especially given its highly immunogenic nature. In fact, skin is one of the most challenging organs in terms of allograft retention. In this protocol, we provide a detailed procedure for skin grafting using the tail skin as ...
    Transcervical Mouse Infections with Chlamydia trachomatis and Determination of Bacterial Burden
    Authors:  Karthika Rajeeve and Rajeeve Sivadasan, date: 02/05/2020, view: 199, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate human pathogen. It infects the genital tract of humans ascending into the fallopian tube, exacerbated by chronic pelvic pain, pelvic inflammatory disease, and fallopian tube scaring resulting in infertility and other malignancies. The major hurdle in controlling chlamydial spread is that the ...
    Automated Analysis of Cell Surface Ruffling: Ruffle Quantification Macro
    Authors:  Nicholas D. Condon, Jennifer L. Stow and Adam A. Wall, date: 01/20/2020, view: 284, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Cell surface protrusions include F-actin rich, wave-like ruffles that are erected transiently in response to stimuli and during cell migration. Macrophages are innate immune cells that ruffle constitutively and more dramatically in cells activated by pathogens. Dorsal ruffles and their resulting macropinosomes are key sites for environmental ...
    Quantifying HIV-1-Mediated Gut CD4+ T Cell Death in the Lamina Propria Aggregate Culture (LPAC) Model
    [Abstract] Gut CD4 T cells are major targets of HIV-1 and are massively depleted early during infection. To better understand the mechanisms governing HIV-1-mediated CD4 T cell death, we developed the physiologically-relevant Lamina Propria Aggregate Culture (LPAC) model. The LPAC model is ideal for studying CD4 T cell death induced by clinically-relevant ...
    Isolation and Stimulation of Peritoneal Macrophages with Apoptotic Jurkat Cells to Produce IL-10
    Authors:  Mei Song and Xiaojing Ma, date: 12/20/2019, view: 451, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages is critical to ensuring cellular homeostasis and suppression of autoimmunity. Macrophage recognition of apoptotic cells triggers an anti-inflammatory response, which is mediated by the release of IL-10, TGF-β etc. with concurrent inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFα, IL-12, ...
    Propagation and Purification of Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar L2 Transformants and Mutants
    Authors:  Robert Faris and Mary M. Weber, date: 12/20/2019, view: 442, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.) is an obligate intracellular pathogen that cannot be cultured axenically and must be propagated within eukaryotic host cells. There are at least 15 distinct chlamydial serovariants that belong to 2 major biovars commonly referred to as trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). The invasive ...
    Lysosome Targeting RedGreen-assay: Selective Autophagy Sensing Assay for Mammalian Cells
    Authors:  Victoria Riccio, Miluska Vissa, Angus McQuibban and Peter Kijun Kim, date: 12/20/2019, view: 773, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The process of autophagy is an essential cellular mechanism, required to maintain general cell health through the removal of dysfunctional organelles, such as the ER, peroxisomes and mitochondria, as well as protein aggregates, and bacteria. Autophagy is an extremely dynamic process, and tools are constantly being developed to study the various ...
    Preparation of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) Germ-free Larvae for Host-gut Microbes Interaction Studies
    Authors:  Abrar Muhammad, Prosper Habineza, Youming Hou and Zhanghong Shi, date: 12/20/2019, view: 500, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, is a devastating pest of palm trees worldwide. RPW gut is colonized by diverse bacterial species which profoundly influence host development and nutritional metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms behind the interactions between RPW and its gut microbiota remain mostly ...
    cDNA Display Mediated Immuno-PCR (cD-IPCR): A Novel PCR-based Antigen Detection Method
    Authors:  Chathuni Jayathilake, Takuya Terai and Naoto Nemoto, date: 12/20/2019, view: 682, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Immuno-PCR (IPCR) is a powerful method in antigen detection where a PCR-amplifiable DNA reporter is conjugated to a specific antibody or an aptamer for the target molecule. In the development and application of IPCR, successful conjugation of a protein (an antibody) with a reporter DNA becomes challenging. To address this issue, we recently ...
    Quantification of Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species in Leishmania-infected J774A.1 Macrophages as a Response to the in vitro Treatment with a Natural Product Compound
    Authors:  Kalliopi Karampetsou, Olga S. Koutsoni and Eleni Dotsika, date: 12/05/2019, view: 472, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by the obligatory intracellular protozoa Leishmania spp. Current therapeutic options are limited and thus, drug discovery against leishmaniasis is very important. Nevertheless, there is a great difficulty to develop therapeutic strategies against the disease because the parasite deploys various ...



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