Mammalia

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Identification of Socially-activated Neurons
    Authors:  Mary L. Phillips and Lucas Pozzo-Miller, date: 09/05/2020, view: 560, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Determining the neuronal circuitry responsible for specific behaviors is a major focus in the field of neurobiology. Activity-dependent immediate early genes (IEGs), transcribed and translated shortly after neurons discharge action potentials, have been used extensively to either identify or gain genetic access to neurons and brain regions ...
    Generation of Functional Mouse Hippocampal Neurons
    Authors:  Francesco Tomassoni-Ardori, Zhenyi Hong, Gianluca Fulgenzi and Lino Tessarollo, date: 08/05/2020, view: 922, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Primary culture of mouse hippocampal neurons is a very useful in vitro model for studying neuronal development, axonal and dendritic morphology, synaptic functions, and many other neuronal features. Here we describe a step-by-step process of generating primary neurons from mouse embryonic hippocampi (E17.5/E18.5). Hippocampal neurons ...
    Multiple Simultaneous Acute Stresses in Mice: Single or Repeated Induction
    [Abstract] Stress is crucial to the survival of an organism, but excessive stress can lead to psychological disorders including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and suicidality. The prevailing notion is that chronic stress promotes adverse outcomes on brain and body health, whereas acute stressors are generally benign. Notably, acute events such mass ...
    Minimally Invasive Oral Surgery Induction of the FRICT-ION Chronic Neuropathic Pain Model
    Authors:  Marena A. Montera and Karin N. Westlund, date: 04/20/2020, view: 952, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] An easily induced preclinical trigeminal neuropathic nerve injury model is described here for the study of chronic pain, the model acronym FRICT-ION (Foramen Rotundum Inflammatory Constriction Trigeminal InfraOrbital Nerve). In patients, neuropathic pain is thought to be related to ...
    Method for Primary Epithelial Cell Culture from the Rat Choroid Plexus
    Authors:  Valeria Lallai, Amina Ahmed and Christie D. Fowler, date: 02/20/2020, view: 1471, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The choroid plexus consists of a network of secretory epithelial cells localized throughout the lateral, third and fourth ventricles of the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is generated by the choroid plexus and released into the ventricular environment. This biofluid contains an enriched source of proteins, ions, and other signaling molecules for ...
    Laser Capture Micro-dissection (LCM) of Neonatal Mouse Forebrain for RNA Isolation
    Authors:  Achira Roy, Mei Deng, Kimberly A. Aldinger, Ian A. GLass and Kathleen J. Millen, date: 01/05/2020, view: 2071, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Precise and reproducible isolation of desired cell types or layers from heterogeneous tissues is crucial to analyze specific gene profiles and molecular interactions in vivo. Forebrain is the core site of higher functions, like cognition and memory consolidation. It is composed of heterogeneous and distinct cell types, interconnected to ...
    Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein 35-55 (MOG 35-55)-induced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: A Model of Chronic Multiple Sclerosis
    Authors:  Sakie Miyamura, Nagisa Matsuo, Kazuki Nagayasu, Hisashi Shirakawa and Shuji Kaneko, date: 12/20/2019, view: 2039, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the common demyelinating disease of human central nervous system. Among mouse models available to study MS, including the cuprizone application and lysolecithin-injection models, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model is widely used so that chronic EAE model of C57BL/6J can reflect the autoimmune ...
    Trial-based Discrimination Procedure for Studying Drug Relapse in Rats
    [Abstract] In abstinent drug addicts, cues formerly associated with drug-taking experiences gain relapse-inducing potency (‘incubate’) over time. Animal models of incubation may help in developing treatments for relapse prevention. However, these models have primarily focused on the role of conditioned stimuli (CSs) signaling drug delivery and not ...
    Optogenetic Food Odor Avoidance Assay
    Authors:  Jay M. Patel, Jessica Swanson and Benjamin R. Arenkiel, date: 10/20/2019, view: 1319, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Appetite is tightly linked to the sensory experience of feeding, including the smell, taste, and sight of food. Sensory perception can affect the palatability of food, modulating appetite beyond homeostatic requirements. Hypothalamic neurons that govern feeding are responsive to sensory cues associated with food, including food odors. However, the ...
    Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotide Perfusion Blocks Gene Expression of Synaptic Plasticity-related Proteins without Inducing Compensation in Hippocampal Slices
    [Abstract] The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of long-term synaptic plasticity has been hindered by both the compensation that can occur after chronic loss of the core plasticity molecules and by ex vivo conditions that may not reproduce in vivo plasticity. Here we describe a novel method to rapidly suppress gene expression by ...



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