Mammalia

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Quantification of Prostaglandin E2 Concentration in Interstitial Fluid from the Hypothalamic Region of Free-moving Mice
    Authors:  Yoshinobu Nakamura, Takatoshi Sakaguchi, Ikumi Tamai and Takeo Nakanishi, date: 08/05/2019, view: 545, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a well-established chemical mediator for the generation of the fever at the hypothalamus of the brain. PGE2 mediates fever generation via PGE receptor 3 (i.e., EP3) on neurons in the preoptic area. The role of PGE2 has been analyzed by measuring PGE2 ...
    Time-lapse Whole-field Fluorescence Imaging of Microglia Processes Motility in Acute Mouse Hippocampal Slices and Analysis
    [Abstract] Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). In the last year, the improvements in the transgenic mouse technologies and imaging techniques have shed light on microglia functions under physiological conditions. Microglia continuously scan the brain parenchyma with their highly motile processes, maintaining tissue ...
    Measurement of Dopamine Using Fast Scan Cyclic Voltammetry in Rodent Brain Slices
    Authors:  Madelyn I. Mauterer, Paige M. Estave, Katherine M. Holleran and Sara R. Jones, date: 10/05/2018, view: 3395, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical technique that allows sub-second detection of oxidizable chemical species, including monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. This technique has been used to record the physiological dynamics of these neurotransmitters in brain tissue, including their ...
    Artificial Inhalation Protocol in Adult Mice
    Authors:  Thomas P. Eiting and Matt Wachowiak, date: 09/20/2018, view: 1745, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Research in the area of in vivo olfactory physiology benefits from having direct access to the nasal airways through which odorants can be presented. Ordinarily, the passage of odorants through the airways is controlled by respiratory rhythm. This fact makes it difficult to control the timing and strength of an olfactory stimulus, since ...
    Intracellular and Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Measurement in Primary Cultured Neurons
    [Abstract] Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive oxygen containing molecules. ROS consist of radical oxygen species including superoxide anion (O2•−) and hydroxyl radical (•OH) and non-radical oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), singlet oxygen (O2). ROS are generated by ...
    Induction of Photothrombotic Stroke in the Sensorimotor Cortex of Rats and Preparation of Tissue for Analysis of Stroke Volume and Topographical Cortical Localization of Ischemic Infarct
    Authors:  Anna M. Wiersma and Ian R. Winship, date: 05/20/2018, view: 4833, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The photothrombotic model of stroke is commonly used in research as it allows the ischemic infarct to be targeted to specific regions of the cortex with high reproducibility and well-defined infarct borders. Unlike other models of stroke, photothrombosis allows the precise size and location of infarct to be tightly controlled with minimal surgical ...
    In vivo Use of Dextran-based Anterograde Cortical Tracers to Assess the Integrity of the Cortical Spinal Tract
    Authors:  Anna M. Wiersma and Ian R. Winship, date: 05/20/2018, view: 2755, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] When injected into the motor cortex of rats, anterograde tracers label fibers of the associated descending corticospinal tract (CST) that originate from pyramidal neurons in the tracer-injected cortex. These fibers can be assessed at the level of the spinal cord to determine the integrity of the descending CST and the spatial distribution of axons ...
    Sacral Spinal Cord Transection and Isolated Sacral Cord Preparation to Study Chronic Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Mice
    Authors:  Carmelo Bellardita, Maite Marcantoni, Peter Löw and Ole Kiehn, date: 04/05/2018, view: 3085, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by multiple sensory/motor impairments that arise from different underlying neural mechanisms. Linking specific sensory/motor impairments to neural mechanism is limited by a lack of direct experimental access to these neural circuits. Here, we describe an experimental model which addresses this shortcoming. ...
    Fluorescent Measurement of Synaptic Activity Using FM Dyes in Dissociated Hippocampal Cultured Neurons
    Authors:  Roman M. Lazarenko, Claire E. DelBove and Qi Zhang, date: 01/20/2018, view: 4175, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Release and recycling of synaptic vesicles are essential for neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. To gain mechanistic understanding of these processes, direct measurements of vesicle release and retrieval is indispensable. Styryl dyes like FM1-43 and FM4-64 have been widely used for this purpose and their loading and unloading are reliable ...
    A Rodent Model for Chronic Brain Hypoperfusion Related Diseases: Permanent Bilateral Occlusion of the Common Carotid Arteries (2VO) in Rats
    Authors:  Mei-Ling Yan and Jing Ai, date: 01/05/2018, view: 4076, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (2VO) in rat is considered as a suitable animal model to mimic chronic brain hypoperfusion status, which is proved to be a risk factor to precede the Alzheimer’s disease or/and vascular dementia. In this protocol, we describe how to successfully ligate the bilateral common carotid arteries ...



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