Mammalia

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Implanting and Recycling Neuropixels Probes for Recordings in Freely Moving Mice
    Authors:  Ashley L. Juavinett, George Bekheet and Anne K. Churchland, date: 02/05/2020, view: 309, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Recording neural activity in unrestricted animals is necessary to unravel the neural basis of ethological behaviors. Recently, Neuropixels probes have made important strides in improving yield and lowering noise, but have limited use cases in freely moving animals. Although there are a number of studies demonstrating the use of these probes in ...
    Protocol for Measuring Free (Low-stress) Exploration in Rats
    Authors:  Wojciech Pisula and Klaudia Modlinska, date: 01/20/2020, view: 390, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Research on exploratory behavior plays a key part in behavioral science. Studying exploratory behavior of laboratory rodents may provide important data about many developmental and neurobiological processes occurring in animal ontogenesis. The proposed protocol for measuring the free (low-stress) exploration behavior in rats is straightforward, ...
    Assessing Rough-and-tumble Play Behavior in Juvenile Rats
    Authors:  Jonathan W. VanRyzin, Ashley E. Marquardt and Margaret M. McCarthy, date: 01/05/2020, view: 465, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Play is a complex social behavior that is highly conserved across mammals. In most species, males engage in more frequent and vigorous play as juveniles than females, which reflects subtle yet impactful sex differences in brain circuitry and development. In this protocol, we describe a behavioral testing paradigm to assess social play in male and ...
    The Mouse Gambling Task: Assessing Individual Decision-making Strategies in Mice
    Authors:  Elsa Pittaras, Arnaud Rabat and Sylvie Granon, date: 01/05/2020, view: 306, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Decision-making is a complex cognitive process which consists of choosing one option among several alternatives. In humans, this process is featured in the Iowa gambling task (IGT), a decision-making task that mimics real life situations by reproducing uncertain conditions based on probabilistic rewards or penalties (see Background). Several ...
    Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein 35-55 (MOG 35-55)-induced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: A Model of Chronic Multiple Sclerosis
    Authors:  Sakie Miyamura, Nagisa Matsuo, Kazuki Nagayasu, Hisashi Shirakawa and Shuji Kaneko, date: 12/20/2019, view: 504, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the common demyelinating disease of human central nervous system. Among mouse models available to study MS, including the cuprizone application and lysolecithin-injection models, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model is widely used so that chronic EAE model of C57BL/6J can reflect the autoimmune ...
    Trial-based Discrimination Procedure for Studying Drug Relapse in Rats
    [Abstract] In abstinent drug addicts, cues formerly associated with drug-taking experiences gain relapse-inducing potency (‘incubate’) over time. Animal models of incubation may help in developing treatments for relapse prevention. However, these models have primarily focused on the role of conditioned stimuli (CSs) signaling drug delivery and not ...
    Optogenetic Food Odor Avoidance Assay
    Authors:  Jay M. Patel, Jessica Swanson and Benjamin R. Arenkiel, date: 10/20/2019, view: 546, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Appetite is tightly linked to the sensory experience of feeding, including the smell, taste, and sight of food. Sensory perception can affect the palatability of food, modulating appetite beyond homeostatic requirements. Hypothalamic neurons that govern feeding are responsive to sensory cues associated with food, including food odors. However, the ...
    Use of the Vsoc-maze to Study Sociability and Preference for Social Novelty in Rodents
    [Abstract] Studying social behavior in mouse models empowers the understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms involved, which are affected in neuropsychiatric disorders, allowing the evaluation of therapeutic strategies. Behavioral methods available are time-consuming and reducing the length of behavioral sessions may render more manageable experiments ...
    Simple Protocol for Distinguishing Drug-induced Effects on Spatial Memory Acquisition, Consolidation and Retrieval in Mice Using the Morris Water Maze
    Authors:  Ariel K. Frame, Asad Lone, Richard A. Harris and Robert C. Cumming, date: 09/20/2019, view: 750, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The Morris water maze (MWM) is one of the most commonly used tests for assessing spatial learning and memory in mice. While the MWM is highly amenable to testing the effects of memory modifying drugs, most studies do not consider the timing or duration of drug exposure when conducting the MWM assay; factors that can strongly influence the effect ...
    Whisker Nuisance Test: A Valuable Tool to Assess Tactile Hypersensitivity in Mice
    Authors:  Luigi Balasco, Gabriele Chelini, Yuri Bozzi and Giovanni Provenzano, date: 08/20/2019, view: 753, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Abnormal response to tactile stimulation, described as both hyper- and hypo-reactivity, is a common sensory impairment in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. The neural bases of tactile sensitivity remain so far unknown. In the last years, animal studies have proven to be useful for shedding light on the cellular and molecular mechanism ...



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