Protocols in Current Issue
    3D Co-culture System of Tumor-associated Macrophages and Ovarian Cancer Cells
    Authors:  Lingli Long, Mingzhu Yin and Wang Min, date: 04/20/2018, view: 453, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Ovarian cancer is fairly unique in that ovarian carcinoma cells can detach and spread directly through peritoneal cavity. It has been unclear, however, how detached cancer cells survive in the peritoneum and form spheroid structure. We have recently reported that there is a strong correlation between Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs)-associated ...
    Isolation and Separation of Epithelial CD34+ Cancer Stem Cells from Tgfbr2-deficient Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    Authors:  Heather A. McCauley and Géraldine Guasch, date: 09/05/2017, view: 1565, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Most epithelial tumors have been shown to contain cancer stem cells that are potentially the driving force in tumor progression and metastasis (Kreso and Dick, 2014; Nassar and Blanpain, 2016). To study these cells in depth, cell isolation strategies relying on cell surface markers or fluorescent reporters are essential, and the isolation ...
    Antisense Oligonucleotide-mediated Knockdown in Mammary Tumor Organoids
    Authors:  Sarah D. Diermeier and David L. Spector, date: 08/20/2017, view: 1835, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Primary mammary tumor organoids grown in 3D are an excellent system to study tumor biology. They resemble the organization and physiology of native epithelia more closely than cancer cell lines grown in 2D, and additionally model interactions with the ECM (Boj et al., 2015; Clevers, 2016; Shamir and Ewald, 2014). Mammary tumor organoids ...
    Intracaecal Orthotopic Colorectal Cancer Xenograft Mouse Model
    Authors:  Hsin-Wei Liao and Mien-Chie Hung, date: 06/05/2017, view: 2477, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The host microenvironment plays a prominent role in tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and response to therapy. Orthotopic tumor model mimics the natural environment of tumor development and provides an effective approach to investigate tumor pathophysiology and develop therapeutic strategies. This protocol describes the technique ...
    Measurement of Dipeptidylpeptidase Activity in vitro and in vivo
    Authors:  Rosa Barreira da Silva, Molly A. Ingersoll and Matthew L. Albert, date: 03/20/2017, view: 1947, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Dipeptidylpeptidases (DPPs) are serine proteases, which cleave small proteins and peptides possessing a proline or an alanine in the second position of their N-terminus. Among the members of this family, dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (DPP4) is constitutively expressed in the extracellular space. DPP4 is found at the surface of many hematopoietic and ...
    Establishment of Patient-Derived Xenografts in Mice
    Authors:  Dongkyoo Park, Dongsheng Wang, Guo Chen and Xingming Deng, date: 11/20/2016, view: 3979, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models for cancer research have recently attracted considerable attention in both the academy and industry (Hidalgo et al., 2014; Wilding and Bodmer, 2014). PDX models have been developed from different tumor types including lung cancer to improve the drug development process. These models are used for ...
    Quantification of Tumor Material Uptake
    Authors:  Richard N. Hanna and Catherine C. Hedrick, date: 10/20/2016, view: 2918, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Extracellular tumor material including exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic tumor debris may help cancers invade new organs. Enhancing the removal of extracellular tumor material by immune cells represents a novel immunotherapy approach for preventing cancer metastasis. This protocol quantifies the uptake and removal of extracellular tumor ...
    In vitro Tumor Cell Migration Assay Using ThinCertsTM (Transwells)
    Author:  Marc A. Schneider, date: 06/05/2016, view: 5647, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The high migration rate of tumor cells often results in poor prognosis for the survival of the patients. Here, we describe a protocol to measure the migration of cells using a quantitative assay. The relative tumor cell migration was measured using ThinCertsTM cell culture inserts and a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay to quantify the ...
    Mouse Mammary Intraductal (MIND) Method for Transplantation of Patient Derived Primary DCIS Cells and Cell Lines
    Authors:  Frances Kittrell, Kelli Valdez, Hanan Elsarraj, Yan Hong, Daniel Medina and Fariba Behbod, date: 03/05/2016, view: 3397, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The MIND method involves intraductal injection of patient derived ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) cells and DCIS cell lines (MCF10DCIS.COM and SUM225) inside the mouse mammary ducts [Video 1 and Figure 1 in Behbod et al. (2009)]. This method mimics the normal environment of DCIS and facilitates study of the natural progression of human ...
    Generation of Mouse Thyroid Calcitonin-producing Cell Tumors from Primary Mouse Tumors
    Authors:  Shunsuke Kitajima, Fengkai Li and Chiaki Takahashi, date: 12/20/2015, view: 2762, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Medullary thyroid cancers (MTCs) are derived from calcitonin-producing cells (C cells) of neuroendocrine origin. Rb heterozygous mice develop low-grade C cell adenocarcinoma following biallelic inactivation of the Rb tumor suppressor gene loci. Additional inactivation of another tumor suppressor gene such as Trp53, Arf ...