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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Examining Autophagy in Plant by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
    Authors:  Xiyin Zheng, Chenguang Zhao and Yule Liu, date: 10/20/2018, view: 1327, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In plants, macroautophagy, here referred as autophagy, is a degradation pathway during which the double-membrane structure named autophagosome engulfs the cargo and then fuses with vacuole for material recycling.

    To investigate the process of autophagy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to monitor the ultrastructure of ...
    Infection of Nicotiana benthamiana Plants with Potato Virus X (PVX)
    [Abstract] Potato Virus X (PVX) is the type member of Potexvirus genus, a group of plant viruses with a positive-strand RNA genome (~6.4 kb). PVX is able to establish compatible infections in Nicotiana benthamiana, a commonly used host in plant virology, leading to mild symptoms, such as chlorotic mosaic and mottling. PVX has been ...
    Bioassays to Investigate the Effects of Insect Oviposition on a Plant’s Resistance to Herbivores
    Authors:  Michele Bandoly and Anke Steppuhn, date: 06/05/2016, view: 7289, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Plants respond to herbivory with diverse defence responses (Schoonhoven et al., 2005). Many herbivorous insects deposit their eggs on their host plants before their larvae start to feed. Thus, plants could use insect eggs as a signal to increase their resistance to herbivores. Here, we report experimental procedures to explore whether and ...
    Shoot Regenerative Capacity Assays in Arabidopsis and Tobacco
    Authors:  Tian-Qi Zhang and Jia-Wei Wang, date: 03/05/2016, view: 6040, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Plant regeneration refers to a process through which an explant is differentiated to a whole plant under certain conditions. It has been shown that two plant hormones, auxin and cytokinin, play critical roles within this process (Duclercq et al., 2011). Cytokinin induces shoot regeneration, whereas auxin promotes root production. In ...
    Chlorophyll Content Assay to Quantify the Level of Necrosis Induced by Different R Gene/Elicitor Combinations after Transient Expression
    Authors:  C. Jake Harris and David C. Baulcombe, date: 12/05/2015, view: 4988, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] This assay can be used to rapidly and accurately quantify levels of leaf necrosis induced after transient expression of R genes and elicitor combinations (Harris et al., 2013). It is based on the inverse correlation between level of necrosis and chlorophyll content in leaf tissue. It is adapted from the calculations described by (Strain ...
    Leaf Disc Stress Tolerance Assay for Tobacco
    Authors:  Ajit Ghosh, Ashwani Pareek and Sneh L Singla-Pareek, date: 04/05/2015, view: 8915, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Stress tolerance is a multigenic trait that depends on the coordinated action of several genes. Various physiological parameters, such as plant height and weight, total yield, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rate, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and anti-oxidant activity could be correlated directly with the level of stress tolerance ...
    Isolation of Chloroplast Inner and Outer Envelope Membranes
    Authors:  Shiwen Wang, Lina Yin, Jun’ichi Mano and Kiyoshi Tanaka, date: 02/20/2015, view: 8565, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The chloroplast is an important organelle found in plant cells that conduct photosynthesis. It is enclosed by a pair of closely spaced membranes, the double-membrane envelope, consisting of the inner membrane bounding the matrix or stroma and the outer membrane in contact with the cytoplasm. Like many bio-membranes, the chloroplast envelope plays ...
    Thermoluminescence (TL) Measurements in Tobacco Leaves
    Authors:  Shunhua Ding, Xiaogang Wen and Congming Lu, date: 03/05/2013, view: 6564, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] TL measurement is a useful tool for studying charge stabilization and subsequent recombination in photosystem II (PSII) in higher plants and cyanobacteria. Recombination of positive charges stored in the S2 and S3 oxidation states of the water oxidizing complex with electrons stabilized on the reduced QA and QB ...



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