Protocols in Current Issue
    Visualization of Plant Cell Wall Epitopes Using Immunogold Labeling for Electron Microscopy
    Author:  Mateusz Majda, date: 04/05/2019, view: 329, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Plant cell walls consist of different polysaccharides and structural proteins, which form a rigid layer located outside of the plasma membrane. The wall is also a very dynamic cell composite, which is characterized by complex polysaccharide interactions and various modifications during cell development. The visualization of cell wall components in ...
    Using Light and Electron Microscopy to Estimate Structural Variation in Thylakoid Membranes
    Authors:  Hatsumi Nozue and Kiyokazu Kametani, date: 12/05/2017, view: 3140, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The shapes of chloroplasts and the architectures of internal thylakoid membranes are altered by growth and environmental changes (Lichtenthaler et al., 1981; Kutik, 1985; Terashima and Hikosaka, 1995). These morphological alterations proceed via transitional intermediates, during which dynamic and heterogeneous thylakoid membranes are ...
    Laser Scanning Confocal Microcopy for Arabidopsis Epidermal, Mesophyll, and Vascular Parenchyma Cells
    Authors:  Christian Elowsky, Yashitola Wamboldt and Sally Mackenzie, date: 03/05/2017, view: 5614, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Investigation of protein targeting to plastids in plants by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) can be complicated by numerous sources of artifact, ranging from misinterpretations from in vivo protein over-expression, false fluorescence in cells under stress, and organellar mis-identification. Our studies have focused on the ...
    Visualising Differential Growth of Arabidopsis Epidermal Pavement Cells Using Thin Plate Spline Analysis
    Authors:  William Jonathan Armour, Deborah Anne Barton and Robyn Lynette Overall, date: 11/20/2016, view: 4212, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Epidermal pavement cells in Arabidopsis leaves and cotyledons develop from relatively simple shapes to form complex cells that have multiple undulations of varying sizes. Analyzing the growth of individual parts of the cell wall boundaries over time is essential to understanding how pavement cells develop their complex shapes. Thin plate ...
    Measuring the Interactions between Peroxisomes and Chloroplasts by in situ Laser Analysis
    Authors:  Kazusato Oikawa, Shoji Mano, Kenji Yamada, Yoichiro Hosokawa and Mikio Nishimura, date: 04/20/2016, view: 4389, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Quantitative analysis has been necessary for deeply understanding characteristic of organelles function. This is the detailed protocol for the quantification of the physical interaction between peroxisomes and chloroplasts taken by laser scanning microscopy described by Oikawa et al. (2015). To clarify the morphological interactions ...
    Transverse Sectioning of Arabidopsis thaliana Leaves Using Resin Embedding
    Authors:  Shweta Kalve, Kumud Saini, Kris Vissenberg, Tom Beeckman and Gerrit T. S. Beemster, date: 09/20/2015, view: 7662, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The leaf is the major functional part of the shoot performing the bulk of photosynthetic activity. Its development is relatively plastic allowing the plant to adapt to environmental changes by modifying leaf size and anatomy. Moreover, a leaf is made up of various distinct cell layers, each having specialized functions. To understand functional ...
    Observation of Chloroplast-actin Filaments in Leaves of Arabidopsis
    Authors:  Sam-Geun Kong and Masamitsu Wada , date: 12/20/2013, view: 6274, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Chloroplast-actin (cp-actin) filaments play a pivotal role in chloroplast photorelocation movement. This protocol describes observation of cp-actin filaments in intact palisade cells of Arabidopsis leaves (Kong et al., 2013). The live cell imaging of cp-actin filaments is taken on moving chloroplasts, so that this protocol is ...
    Stomatal Bioassay in Arabidopsis Leaves
    Authors:  Xuan Li, Xian-Ge Ma and Jun-Min He, date: 10/05/2013, view: 9545, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] Stomata embedded in the epidermis of terrestrial plants are important for CO2 absorption and water transpiration, and are possible points of entry for pathogens. Thus, the regulation of stomatal apertures is extremely important for the survival of plants. Furthermore, stomata can respond via accurate change of stomatal apertures to a ...

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