Mammalia

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Early Life Ovalbumin Sensitization and Aerosol Challenge for the Induction of Allergic Airway Inflammation in a BALB/c Murine Model
    [Abstract] The early life period represents a time of immunological plasticity whereby the functionally immature immune system is highly susceptible to environmental stimulation. Perennial aeroallergen and respiratory viral infection induced sporadic episodes of lung inflammation during this temporal window represent major risk factors for initiation of ...
    A Mouse Model of Postoperative Pain
    Authors:  Ashley M. Cowie and Cheryl L. Stucky, date: 01/20/2019, view: 1312, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Postoperative pain is highly debilitating and hinders recovery. Opioids are the main pain medication used for acute postoperative pain. Given the devastating opioid addiction and overdose epidemic across the US, non-opioid pain therapeutics are desperately needed. In order to develop novel, non-opioid therapies for the treatment of postoperative ...
    Murine Pharmacokinetic Studies
    [Abstract] Murine pharmacokinetics (PK) represents the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of drugs from the body, which helps to guide clinical studies, ultimately resulting in more effective drug treatment. The purpose of this protocol is to describe a serial bleeding protocol, obtaining blood samples at six time points from single mouse ...
    Behavioral Evaluation of Seeking and Preference of Alcohol in Mice Subjected to Stress
    Authors:  Ana Canseco-Alba, Norman Schanz, Hiroki Ishiguro, Qing-Rong Liu and Emmanuel S. Onaivi, date: 10/20/2018, view: 1068, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The alcohol preference model is one of the most widely used animal models relevant to alcoholism. Stressors increase alcohol consumption. Here we present a protocol for a rapid and useful tool to test alcohol preference and stress-induced alcohol consumption in mice. In this model, animals are given two bottles, one with a diluted solution of ...
    Assessment of Uptake and Biodistribution of Radiolabeled Cholesterol in Mice Using Gavaged Recombinant Triglyceride-rich Lipoprotein Particles (rTRL)
    Authors:  Anna Worthmann, Clara John and Joerg Heeren, date: 07/05/2018, view: 1377, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The here described method can be used to estimate the uptake of orally provided cholesterol in mice. Briefly, mice are gavaged with radiolabeled cholesterol and 4 h later, organ distribution of the radiolabel is determined by liquid scintillation counting. The method has been applied successfully to determine dietary cholesterol handling of mice ...
    Evaluation of Muscle Performance in Mice by Treadmill Exhaustion Test and Whole-limb Grip Strength Assay
    Authors:  Beatriz Castro and Shihuan Kuang, date: 04/20/2017, view: 5968, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In vivo muscle function testing has become of great interest as primary phenotypic analysis of muscle performance. This protocol provides detailed procedures to perform the treadmill exhaustion test and the whole-limb grip strength assay, two methods commonly used in the neuromuscular research field.
    Preparation of Purified Gram-positive Bacterial Cell Wall and Detection in Placenta and Fetal Tissues
    Authors:  Beth Mann, Lip Nam Loh, Geli Gao and Elaine Tuomanen, date: 12/05/2016, view: 5092, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Cell wall is a complex biopolymer on the surface of all Gram-positive bacteria. During infection, cell wall is recognized by the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 2 causing intense inflammation and tissue damage. In animal models, cell wall traffics from the blood stream to many organs in the body, including brain, heart, placenta and ...
    PKC-θ in vitro Kinase Activity Assay
    Authors:  Xudong Wang and Yingqiu Li, date: 10/20/2016, view: 4666, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Protein kinase C-θ (PKC-θ), a member of the Ca2+-independent PKC subfamily of kinases, serves as a regulator of T cell activation by mediating the T cell antigen receptor (TCR)- and coreceptor CD28-induced activation of the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 and, to a lesser extent, NFAT, and, subsequently, interleukin 2 (IL-2) ...
    High Fat Diet-induced Breast Cancer Model in Rat
    Authors:  Meng Ju Wu and Chun Ju Chang, date: 07/05/2016, view: 4439, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Obesity has been linked to breast cancer progression but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Being overweight or obese for a woman at the time she is diagnosed with breast cancer is linked to a high risk of recurrence regardless of treatment factors. In rodents, high body weight is also associated with increased incidence of spontaneous and ...
    Repeated Cross-fostering Protocol as a Mouse Model of Early Environmental Instability
    Authors:  Alessandra Luchetti, Marco Battaglia and Francesca R. D’Amato, date: 02/20/2016, view: 4479, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Early life events have a crucial role in programming the individual phenotype indeed the exposure to traumatic experiences during infancy can increase later risks for a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including mood and anxiety disorders. Several studies in rodents demonstrated the impact of short and long sessions of separation/isolation ...



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