Protocols in Current Issue
    3D Co-culture System of Tumor-associated Macrophages and Ovarian Cancer Cells
    Authors:  Lingli Long, Mingzhu Yin and Wang Min, date: 04/20/2018, view: 453, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Ovarian cancer is fairly unique in that ovarian carcinoma cells can detach and spread directly through peritoneal cavity. It has been unclear, however, how detached cancer cells survive in the peritoneum and form spheroid structure. We have recently reported that there is a strong correlation between Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs)-associated ...
    Isolation and Separation of Epithelial CD34+ Cancer Stem Cells from Tgfbr2-deficient Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    Authors:  Heather A. McCauley and Géraldine Guasch, date: 09/05/2017, view: 1565, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Most epithelial tumors have been shown to contain cancer stem cells that are potentially the driving force in tumor progression and metastasis (Kreso and Dick, 2014; Nassar and Blanpain, 2016). To study these cells in depth, cell isolation strategies relying on cell surface markers or fluorescent reporters are essential, and the isolation ...
    Antisense Oligonucleotide-mediated Knockdown in Mammary Tumor Organoids
    Authors:  Sarah D. Diermeier and David L. Spector, date: 08/20/2017, view: 1835, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Primary mammary tumor organoids grown in 3D are an excellent system to study tumor biology. They resemble the organization and physiology of native epithelia more closely than cancer cell lines grown in 2D, and additionally model interactions with the ECM (Boj et al., 2015; Clevers, 2016; Shamir and Ewald, 2014). Mammary tumor organoids ...
    Glioma Induction by Intracerebral Retrovirus Injection
    Authors:  Ravinder K Verma , Fanghui Lu and Qing Richard Lu, date: 07/20/2017, view: 1882, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain cancer in adults and has a poor prognosis. It is characterized by a high degree of cellular infiltration that leads to tumor recurrence, atypical hyperplasia, necrosis, and angiogenesis. Despite aggressive treatment modalities, current therapies are ineffective for GBM. Mouse GBM models not only ...
    A Novel Mouse Skin Graft Model of Vascular Tumors Driven by Akt1
    Authors:  Thuy L. Phung and Sriram Ayyaswamy, date: 07/05/2017, view: 2590, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] To investigate whether endothelial Akt1 activation is sufficient to induce vascular tumor formation in the skin, we have developed a skin graft model in which a skin fragment from transgenic donor mice with inducible and endothelial cell-specific overexpression of activated Akt1 (myrAkt1) is grafted into the skin of wild type recipient mice. The ...
    Intracaecal Orthotopic Colorectal Cancer Xenograft Mouse Model
    Authors:  Hsin-Wei Liao and Mien-Chie Hung, date: 06/05/2017, view: 2477, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The host microenvironment plays a prominent role in tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and response to therapy. Orthotopic tumor model mimics the natural environment of tumor development and provides an effective approach to investigate tumor pathophysiology and develop therapeutic strategies. This protocol describes the technique ...
    Measurement of Dipeptidylpeptidase Activity in vitro and in vivo
    Authors:  Rosa Barreira da Silva, Molly A. Ingersoll and Matthew L. Albert, date: 03/20/2017, view: 1947, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Dipeptidylpeptidases (DPPs) are serine proteases, which cleave small proteins and peptides possessing a proline or an alanine in the second position of their N-terminus. Among the members of this family, dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (DPP4) is constitutively expressed in the extracellular space. DPP4 is found at the surface of many hematopoietic and ...
    Establishment of Patient-Derived Xenografts in Mice
    Authors:  Dongkyoo Park, Dongsheng Wang, Guo Chen and Xingming Deng, date: 11/20/2016, view: 3978, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models for cancer research have recently attracted considerable attention in both the academy and industry (Hidalgo et al., 2014; Wilding and Bodmer, 2014). PDX models have been developed from different tumor types including lung cancer to improve the drug development process. These models are used for ...
    Phagocytosis Assay to Measure Uptake of Necroptotic Cancer Cells by BMDCs
    Authors:  Tania Løve Aaes, Dmitri V. Krysko and Peter Vandenabeele, date: 11/05/2016, view: 3487, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] This protocol is a flow cytometry-based method to measure the phagocytosis efficiency of necroptotic target cells by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in vitro (Aaes et al., 2016). The method is a slightly modified and updated version of the protocols used in previously published papers (Krysko et al., 2006; ...
    Quantification of Tumor Material Uptake
    Authors:  Richard N. Hanna and Catherine C. Hedrick, date: 10/20/2016, view: 2918, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Extracellular tumor material including exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic tumor debris may help cancers invade new organs. Enhancing the removal of extracellular tumor material by immune cells represents a novel immunotherapy approach for preventing cancer metastasis. This protocol quantifies the uptake and removal of extracellular tumor ...