Mammalia

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Simple Protocol for Distinguishing Drug-induced Effects on Spatial Memory Acquisition, Consolidation and Retrieval in Mice Using the Morris Water Maze
    Authors:  Ariel K. Frame, Asad Lone, Richard A. Harris and Robert C. Cumming, date: 09/20/2019, view: 39, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The Morris water maze (MWM) is one of the most commonly used tests for assessing spatial learning and memory in mice. While the MWM is highly amenable to testing the effects of memory modifying drugs, most studies do not consider the timing or duration of drug exposure when conducting the MWM assay; factors that can strongly influence the effect ...
    Explant Culture of the Embryonic Mouse Spinal Cord and Gene Transfer by ex vivo Electroporation
    [Abstract] Developing axons change responsiveness to guidance cues during the journey to synapse with target cells. Axon crossing at the ventral midline serves as a model for studying how axons accomplish such a switch in their response. Although primary neuron culture has been a versatile technique for elucidating various developmental mechanisms, many in ...
    A High-throughput and Pathophysiologically Relevant Astrocyte-motor Neuron Co-culture Assay for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Therapeutic Discovery
    Authors:  Matthew J. Stopford, Scott P. Allen and Laura Ferraiuolo, date: 09/05/2019, view: 446, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult onset neurological disorder characterized by loss of motor neurons leading to progressive muscle wasting and eventually death. Astrocytes play a key role in disease pathogenesis. However, the ability to study astrocytic support towards motor neurons in ALS has been limited by a lack of sustainable ...
    Construction of Viral Vectors for Cell Type-specific CRISPR Gene Editing in the Adult Mouse Brain
    Authors:  Hiroshi Yamaguchi and Luis de Lecea, date: 08/20/2019, view: 453, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Recently developed gene editing technologies based on engineered CRISPR/Cas9 systems enables researchers to disrupt genes in a cell type-specific manner in the adult mouse brain. Using these technologies, we recently showed that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene in Locus Coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine neurons plays a vital role in the maintenance ...
    Whisker Nuisance Test: A Valuable Tool to Assess Tactile Hypersensitivity in Mice
    Authors:  Luigi Balasco, Gabriele Chelini, Yuri Bozzi and Giovanni Provenzano, date: 08/20/2019, view: 266, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Abnormal response to tactile stimulation, described as both hyper- and hypo-reactivity, is a common sensory impairment in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. The neural bases of tactile sensitivity remain so far unknown. In the last years, animal studies have proven to be useful for shedding light on the cellular and molecular mechanism ...
    Quantification of Prostaglandin E2 Concentration in Interstitial Fluid from the Hypothalamic Region of Free-moving Mice
    Authors:  Yoshinobu Nakamura, Takatoshi Sakaguchi, Ikumi Tamai and Takeo Nakanishi, date: 08/05/2019, view: 352, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a well-established chemical mediator for the generation of the fever at the hypothalamus of the brain. PGE2 mediates fever generation via PGE receptor 3 (i.e., EP3) on neurons in the preoptic area. The role of PGE2 has been analyzed by measuring PGE2 ...
    Looking through Brains with Fast Passive CLARITY: Zebrafish, Rodents, Non-human Primates and Humans
    Authors:  Farzad Mortazavi, Alexander J. Stankiewicz and Irina V. Zhdanova, date: 08/05/2019, view: 461, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Recently developed CLARITY (Clear Lipid-exchanged Acrylamide-hybridized Rigid Imaging/Immunostaining/In situ-hybridization-compatible Tis-sue-hYdrogel) technique renders the tissue transparent by removing lipids in the tissue, while preserving and stabilizing the cellular and subcellular structures. This provides effective penetration of diverse ...
    Live-cell Migration Assays to Study Motility of Neural and Glial (Oligodendrocyte) Progenitor Cells
    Authors:  Chu-Yen Chen, Fu-Sheng Chou and Pei-Shan Wang, date: 06/20/2019, view: 677, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Cell motility has been extensively studied in in vitro models using fibroblasts and keratocytes, but the cell type-specific mechanisms underlying migration of lineage- or disease-specific cells, such as neural and glial progenitor cells, remain an active field for investigation. The migrating neural and glial progenitor cells contribute ...
    Neurostore: A Novel Cryopreserving Medium for Primary Neurons
    Authors:  Francesca Pischedda and Giovanni Piccoli, date: 06/20/2019, view: 623, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Primary neuronal culture from rodents is a key tool in neurobiology. However, the preparation of primary cultures requires precise planning, starting from animal mating. Furthermore, each preparation generates a high amount of cells that eventually go wasted. The possibility to cryopreserve primary neural cells represents a resource for in vitro ...
    Optical Stimulation and Electrophysiological Analysis of Regenerating Peripheral Axons
    Authors:  Patricia J. Ward and Arthur W. English, date: 06/20/2019, view: 686, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Although axons in the peripheral nervous system can regenerate, functional recovery after nerve injuries is poor. Activity-based therapies, such as exercise and electrical stimulation, enhance the regeneration of cut peripheral axons. Despite their effectiveness, clinical application of these experimental techniques has been limited. At least part ...



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