Viruses

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Viral Double-Stranded RNA Detection by DNase I and Nuclease S1 digestions in Leishmania parasites
    Authors:  Nathalie Isorce and Nicolas Fasel, date: 05/05/2020, view: 488, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Many RNA viruses are found in protozoan parasites. They can be responsible for more serious pathology or treatment failure. For the detection of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), sequence-dependent and -independent methods are available, such as quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence, dot blot, ELISA or sequencing. The technique ...
    Enzymatic Construction of Protein Polymer/Polyprotein Using OaAEP1 and TEV Protease
    Authors:  Yibing Deng, Shengchao Shi, Bin Zheng, Tao Wu and Peng Zheng, date: 04/20/2020, view: 1026, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The development of chemical and biological coupling technologies in recent years has made possible of protein polymers engineering. We have developed an enzymatic method for building polyproteins using a protein ligase OaAEP1 (asparagine endopeptidase 1) and protease TEV (tobacco etching virus). Using a mobile TEV protease site compatible with the ...
    A Mismatch-tolerant RT-LAMP Method for Molecular Diagnosis of Highly Variable Viruses
    Authors:  Yingxue Li, Yi Zhou, Yingying Ma, Rong Xu, Xia Jin and Chiyu Zhang, date: 11/05/2019, view: 1606, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been widely used in the detection of pathogens. However, there are usually numerous variants in one viral pathogen and primers employed in LAMP can hardly match all these variants. The mismatches between the primers and the viral genomes, especially those at the 3′-end of the primers, hinder LAMP ...
    Detachment Procedure of Bacteria from Atmospheric Particles for Flow-cytometry Counting
    Authors:  Carolina M. Araya, Alberto Cazorla and Isabel Reche, date: 06/20/2019, view: 1921, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The protocol separates bacteria from atmospheric particles, obtaining with greater precision their abundance in the atmospheric deposition. This procedure is similar to the one used to separate bacteria in streambed sediments. The detachment procedure consists of a chemical treatment with sodium pyrophosphate and Tween 20 and a physical treatment ...
    A Flow Cytometric Method to Determine Transfection Efficiency
    [Abstract] Mammalian cell transfection is a powerful technique commonly used in molecular biology to express exogenous DNA or RNA in cells and study gene and protein function. Although several transfection strategies have been developed, there is a wide variation with regards to transfection efficiency, cell toxicity and reproducibility. Thus, a sensitive ...
    Next-generation Sequencing of the DNA Virome from Fecal Samples
    Authors:  Cynthia L. Monaco and Douglas S. Kwon, date: 03/05/2017, view: 6433, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Herein we describe a detailed protocol for DNA virome analysis of low input human stool samples (Monaco et al., 2016). This protocol is divided into four main steps: 1) stool samples are pulverized to evenly distribute microbial matter; 2) stool is enriched for virus-like particles and DNA is extracted by phenol-chloroform; 3) purified ...
    TCRβ Clonotype Analysis of EBV and CMV-specific Human CD8+ T Cells
    Authors:  Nening M. Nanlohy, Dan Koning, Esther D. Quakkelaar and Debbie van Baarle, date: 10/05/2015, view: 5342, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] This protocol describes the quantification of all expressed T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) gene products within sorted (by flow cytometry) EBV and CMV-specific memory CD8+ T-cell populations using a template-switch anchored reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
    Determining the Relative Fitness Score of Mutant Viruses in a Population Using Illumina Paired-end Sequencing and Regression Analysis
    Authors:  Hangfei Qi, C. Anders Olson, Nicholas C. Wu, Yushen Du and Ren Sun, date: 05/20/2015, view: 6438, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Recent advances in DNA sequencing capacity to accurately quantify the copy number of individual variants in a large and diverse population allows in parallel determination of the phenotypic effects caused by each genetic modification. This systematic profiling approach is a combination of forward and reverse genetics, which we refer to as ...
    Construction of FWPV Chimaeric MVA
    Authors:  Karen R. Buttigieg and Michael A. Skinner, date: 01/05/2015, view: 6389, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] Construction of chimaeric MVA is a useful tool with which to study gene function of related viruses. The protocol given here describes MVA chimaeras containing genes from Fowlpox virus (FWPV), although this can be applied to DNA derived from other organisms. There are a number of steps required to make the chimaeric MVA: 1) Purification of viral ...
    Fluorometric Estimation of Viral Thermal Stability
    Authors:  Vamseedhar Rayaprolu, Shannon Kruse, Ravi Kant, Navid Movahed, Dewey Brooke and Brian Bothner, date: 08/05/2014, view: 8746, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] Differential Scanning Fluorimetry (DSF) is a rapid, economical, and a straightforward technique for estimating the thermal stability of proteins. The principle involves the binding of a fluorescent dye to thermally exposed hydrophobic pockets of a protein. The dyes used in this technique are highly fluorescent in a non-polar environment and are ...



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