Protocols in Current Issue
    Behavioral Evaluation of Seeking and Preference of Alcohol in Mice Subjected to Stress
    Authors:  Ana Canseco-Alba, Norman Schanz, Hiroki Ishiguro, Qing-Rong Liu and Emmanuel S. Onaivi, date: 10/20/2018, view: 1357, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The alcohol preference model is one of the most widely used animal models relevant to alcoholism. Stressors increase alcohol consumption. Here we present a protocol for a rapid and useful tool to test alcohol preference and stress-induced alcohol consumption in mice. In this model, animals are given two bottles, one with a diluted solution of ...
    Shock-probe Defensive Burying Test to Measure Active versus Passive Coping Style in Response to an Aversive Stimulus in Rats
    Authors:  Elizabeth A. Fucich and David A. Morilak, date: 09/05/2018, view: 1457, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Maladaptive avoidance behaviors are seen in many stress-related psychiatric illnesses. Patients with these illnesses favor passive, avoidant coping strategies rather than adaptive, active coping strategies. Preclinically, coping strategy can be measured in rats using the shock-probe defensive burying test, wherein rats receive a shock from an ...
    Testing Effects of Chronic Chemogenetic Neuronal Stimulation on Energy Balance by Indirect Calorimetry
    Authors:  Sangho Yu and Heike Münzberg, date: 04/20/2018, view: 1968, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The fundamental of neuroscience is to connect the firing of neurons to physiological and behavioral outcomes. Chemogenetics enables researchers to control the activity of a genetically defined population of neurons in vivo through the expression of designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug (DREADD) in specific neurons and ...
    Mechanical Allodynia Assessment in a Murine Neuropathic Pain Model
    [Abstract] Experimental animal models are unique tools (i) to study pain transmission and pathophysiology of neuropathic pain, (ii) to identify novel molecular targets and (iii) to test the potential analgesic effect of specific molecules. The chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain is the first model of post-traumatic painful peripheral ...
    Formalin Murine Model of Pain
    Authors:  Marc López-Cano, Víctor Fernández-Dueñas, Amadeu Llebaria and Francisco Ciruela, date: 12/05/2017, view: 4144, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Pain research is mostly based on experimental assays that use animal models, which may allow deciphering the physiopathology of this condition and to propel drug discovery. The formalin nociception test is considered one of the most predictive approaches to study acute pain in rodents. This test permits monitoring pain-related responses (i.e. ...
    Touchscreen-based Visual Discrimination and Reversal Tasks for Mice to Test Cognitive Flexibility
    Authors:  Karly M. Turner, Christopher G. Simpson and Thomas H. J. Burne, date: 10/20/2017, view: 4526, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Reversal learning can be used to examine deficits in cognitive flexibility, which have been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and addiction. However, methods of examining reversal learning have varied substantially between species. Touchscreen technology has allowed researchers to explore cognitive deficits ...
    Stereotaxic Adeno-associated Virus Injection and Cannula Implantation in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus of Mice
    Authors:  Patrícia A. Correia, Sara Matias and Zachary F. Mainen, date: 09/20/2017, view: 7430, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Optogenetic methods are now widespread in neuroscience research. Here we present a detailed surgical procedure to inject adeno-associated viruses and implant optic fiber cannulas in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of living mice. Combined with transgenic mouse lines, this protocol allows specific targeting of serotonin-producing neurons in the ...
    Assessment of Thermal Pain Sensation in Rats and Mice Using the Hargreaves Test
    Authors:  Menghon Cheah, James W Fawcett and Melissa R Andrews, date: 08/20/2017, view: 5642, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The Hargreaves test is specifically designed to assess thermal pain sensation in rodents such as rats and mice. This test has been used in experiments involving pain sensitization or recovery of thermal pain response following neural injury and regeneration. We present here a step-by-step protocol highlighted with important notes to guide ...
    Evaluation of Muscle Performance in Mice by Treadmill Exhaustion Test and Whole-limb Grip Strength Assay
    Authors:  Beatriz Castro and Shihuan Kuang, date: 04/20/2017, view: 6570, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In vivo muscle function testing has become of great interest as primary phenotypic analysis of muscle performance. This protocol provides detailed procedures to perform the treadmill exhaustion test and the whole-limb grip strength assay, two methods commonly used in the neuromuscular research field.
    Thinned-skulled Cranial Window Preparation (Mice)
    Authors:  Lifeng Zhang, Bo Liang, Yun Li and Da-Ting Lin, date: 03/05/2017, view: 4212, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Imaging structural plasticity or activity of neurons in the brain circuit will facilitate understanding the neural mechanisms underlying animal behavior. Here we describe a modified procedure, the polished and reinforced thinned-skull cranial window preparation, by which we can image dendrites and spines in mouse layer I cortex for weeks (Zhang et ...

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