Protocols in Current Issue
    I Plate-based Assay for Studying How Fungal Volatile Compounds (VCs) Affect Plant Growth and Development and the Identification of VCs via SPME-GC-MS
    Authors:  Wenzhao Wang, Ningxiao Li, Xingzhong Liu and Seogchan Kang, date: 02/20/2019, view: 903, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Biogenic volatile compounds (VCs) mediate various types of crucial intra- and inter-species interactions in plants, animals, and microorganisms owing to their ability to travel through air, liquid, and porous soils. To study how VCs produced by Verticillium dahliae, a soilborne fungal pathogen, affect plant growth and development, we ...
    Soluble and Solid Iron Reduction Assays with Desulfitobacterium hafniense
    Authors:  Lucrezia Comensoli, Julien Maillard, Wafa M. Kooli, Pilar Junier and Edith Joseph, date: 09/05/2018, view: 1033, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] There is a pressing need to develop sustainable and efficient methods to protect and stabilize iron objects. To develop a conservation-restoration method for corroded iron objects, this bio-protocol presents the steps to investigate reductive dissolution of ferric iron and biogenic production of stabilizing ferrous iron minerals in the strict ...
    Quantification of Bacterial Polyhydroxybutyrate Content by Flow Cytometry
    Authors:  Antonio Lagares (Jr.) and Claudio Valverde, date: 12/05/2017, view: 2640, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] We describe here a detailed protocol for the quantification of the intracellular content of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in a population of bacterial cells by flow cytometry, which is based on a consensus of several previously reported works.
    A Protocol of Using White/Red Color Assay to Measure Amyloid-induced Oxidative Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Authors:  Vidhya Bharathi, Amandeep Girdhar and Basant K Patel, date: 08/05/2017, view: 4260, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) harboring ade1 or ade2 mutations manifest red colony color phenotype on rich yeast medium YPD. In these mutants, intermediate metabolites of adenine biosynthesis pathway are accumulated. Accumulated intermediates, in the presence of reduced glutathione, are ...
    Measuring Cyanobacterial Metabolism in Biofilms with NanoSIMS Isotope Imaging and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
    Authors:  Rhona K. Stuart, Xavier Mayali, Michael P. Thelen, Jennifer Pett-Ridge and Peter K. Weber, date: 05/05/2017, view: 4172, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] To advance the understanding of microbial interactions, it is becoming increasingly important to resolve the individual metabolic contributions of microorganisms in complex communities. Organisms from biofilms can be especially difficult to separate, image and analyze, and methods to address these limitations are needed. High resolution imaging ...
    Antibiotic Disc Assay for Synechocystis sp. PCC6803
    Authors:  Otilia Cheregi and Christiane Funk, date: 12/20/2016, view: 5012, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] This protocol describes how to investigate the integrity of the outer cell wall in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 using antibiotics. It is adapted to the agar diffusion test (Bauer et al., 1966), in which filter paper discs impregnated with specified concentrations of antibiotics were placed on agar plates ...
    Pyocyanin Extraction and Quantitative Analysis in Swarming Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Authors:  Michelle M. King, Manita Guragain, Svetlana A. Sarkisova and Marianna A. Patrauchan, date: 12/05/2016, view: 7579, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] This protocol describes the quantification of pyocyanin extracted from swarming colonies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pyocyanin is a secondary metabolite and a major virulence factor, whose production is inducible and varies highly under different growth conditions. The protocol is based on the earlier developed chloroform/HCl extraction of ...
    59Fe Uptake Assays in Paracoccidioides Species
    [Abstract] Iron is an essential micronutrient required for virtually all organisms. This fact is related to the ability of the transition metal to exist in two oxidation states, the reduced ferrous (Fe2+) and the oxidized ferric (Fe3+). Given the relative availability of aqueous iron (the element which constitutes ~5% of the earth’s ...
    A Modified Chromogenic Assay for Determination of the Ratio of Free Intracellular NAD+/NADH in Streptococcus mutans
    Authors:  Jonathon L. Baker, Roberta C. Faustoferri and Robert G. Quivey, Jr, date: 08/20/2016, view: 6527, Q&A: 2
    [Abstract] Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is a coenzyme present in all kingdoms of life and exists in two forms: oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). NAD(H) is involved in a multitude of essential metabolic redox reactions, providing oxidizing or reducing equivalents. The ratio of free intracellular NAD+/NADH is fundamentally ...
    Fluorescent Detection of Intracellular Nitric Oxide in Staphylococcus aureus
    Authors:  April M. Lewis, Silvia S. Matzdorf and Kelly C. Rice, date: 07/20/2016, view: 4736, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Nitric Oxide (NO) is a highly-reactive radical gas that can modify a variety of cellular targets in both eukaryotes and bacteria. NO is produced endogenously by a wide variety of organisms: For example, as a cell-signaling molecule in mammals and bacteria via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes, and as a product of denitrification. As such, it is ...

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