Immunology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    RNA Extraction from Ears and Draining Lymph Nodes of Mice Infected with Leishmania amazonensis
    Authors:  Emilie Giraud and Evie Melanitou, date: 06/05/2020, view: 486, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Parasites of the genus Leishmania infect the mammalian hosts, including mice and humans and cause cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis depending upon the parasite species transmitted by the vector sandfly. Leishmania amazonensis is one of the Leishmania species responsible for the cutaneous form of the disease. We have ...
    Evaluation of B Cell Proliferation in vivo by EdU Incorporation Assay
    Authors:  Adi Biram and Ziv Shulman, date: 05/05/2020, view: 787, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Generation of antibodies is crucial for establishing enduring protection from invading pathogens, as well as for maintaining homeostasis with commensal bacteria at mucosal surfaces. Chronic exposure to microbiota- and dietary- derived antigens results in continuous production of antibody producing cells within the Peyer’s patch germinal center ...
    Environmental Conditioning and Aerosol Infection of Mice
    Authors:  Eriko Kudo and Akiko Iwasaki, date: 04/20/2020, view: 786, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Influenza infection models in mice are widely used to study flu-mediated immune responses and pathology. However, most laboratory mice are housed at 20 °C and 50% relative humidity (RH). To better recapitulate influenza epidemics and immune responses during winter seasons, mice were housed at 20 °C under different humidity conditions, 10-20% or ...
    A Triple-challenge Mouse Model of Allergic Airway Disease, Primary Influenza Infection, and Secondary Bacterial Infection
    Authors:  Sean Roberts, Clare M Williams, Sreeja Roy and Yoichi Furuya, date: 04/20/2020, view: 574, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Asthma is a global problem that affects millions of individuals. An increased risk of respiratory viral and bacterial infections is one of the complications of asthma. We recently reported that mice with ovalbumin-induced allergic airway disease (AAD) are protected against influenza-Streptococcus pneumoniae co-infection. Here, we describe ...
    Method for Measuring Mucociliary Clearance and Cilia-generated Flow in Mice by ex vivo Imaging
    Authors:  Eric Song and Akiko Iwasaki, date: 03/20/2020, view: 660, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Ex vivo biophysical measurements provide valuable insights into understanding both physiological and pathogenic processes. One critical physiological mechanism that is regulated by these biophysical properties is cilia-generated flow that mediates mucociliary clearance, which is known to provide protection against foreign particles and ...
    Skin Transplantation and Lymphoid Organ Analysis in Mice
    [Abstract] Skin transplantation in mice is an important procedure to evaluate immune responses generated against heterologous grafts, especially given its highly immunogenic nature. In fact, skin is one of the most challenging organs in terms of allograft retention. In this protocol, we provide a detailed procedure for skin grafting using the tail skin as ...
    Transcervical Mouse Infections with Chlamydia trachomatis and Determination of Bacterial Burden
    Authors:  Karthika Rajeeve and Rajeeve Sivadasan, date: 02/05/2020, view: 1138, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate human pathogen. It infects the genital tract of humans ascending into the fallopian tube, exacerbated by chronic pelvic pain, pelvic inflammatory disease, and fallopian tube scaring resulting in infertility and other malignancies. The major hurdle in controlling chlamydial spread is that the ...
    Adoptive Transfer of Basophils Enriched from Mouse Spleen
    Authors:  Adrian M. Piliponsky and Stephen J. Galli, date: 11/05/2019, view: 1116, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] CD49b is a member of the integrin family, expressed on basophils, natural killer (NK) cells and a subset CD4+ T cells in the spleen. This protocol describes the adoptive transfer of basophil-enriched CD49b+ cells obtained from mouse spleens by magnetic enrichment. This protocol can be used to assess the contribution of ...
    Visualizing Hypoxia in a Murine Model of Candida albicans Infection Using in vivo Biofluorencence
    Authors:  José Pedro Lopes and Constantin F. Urban, date: 08/05/2019, view: 1423, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Candida albicans is a leading human fungal pathogen that uses several metabolic adaptations to escape immune cells and causes systemic disease. Here, we describe a protocol for measuring one of these adaptations, the ability to thrive in hypoxic niches. Hypoxia was generated after successful subdermal infection with C. albicans ...
    Precision Technique for Splenectomy Limits Mouse Stress Responses for Accurate and Realistic Measurements for Investigating Inflammation and Immunity
    Authors:  Shengwen Calvin Li, Anthony D. Rangel and Mustafa H. Kabeer, date: 08/05/2019, view: 1778, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Splenectomy in an animal model requires a standardized technique utilizing best practice to avoid variability which can result in adverse impact to the animal resulting in flawed physiologic responses simply due to technique rather than to the studied variables. In the case of the spleen, often investigators are analyzing the animal immune or ...



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