Protocols in Current Issue
    Pea Aphid Rearing, Bacterial Infection and Hemocyte Phagocytosis Assay
    Authors:  Li Ma, Lu Liu and Zhiqiang Lu, date: 12/20/2020, view: 558, Q&A: 0

    Insects rely on the simple but effective innate immune system to combat infection. Cellular and humoral responses are interconnected and synergistic in insects’ innate immune system. Phagocytosis is one major cellular response. It is difficult to collect clean hemolymph from the small insect like pea aphid. Here, we provide a practicable

    Isolation and CryoTEM of Phages Infecting Bacterial Wine Spoilers

    With the objective to isolate phages infecting wine bacterial spoilers, we designed a method for the isolation and purification of phages infecting grape-associated bacteria. The method proved successful to isolate GC1 tectivirus infecting the acetic acid bacterium Gluconobacter cerinus. The isolated phage represents a new genus within the

    Murine Acute Pneumonia Model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection
    Authors:  Xiaolei Pan and Weihui Wu, date: 11/05/2020, view: 641, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Animal infection models play significant roles in studying bacterial pathogenic mechanisms, host pathogen interaction as well as evaluating drug and vaccine efficacies. We have been utilizing an acute pneumonia model to study bacterial colonization in lungs and assess virulence to the host by determination of bacterial loads and survival assays, ...
    Microscopy-based Methods for Rosetting Assay in Malaria Research
    Authors:  Wenn-Chyau Lee and Laurent Rénia, date: 07/05/2020, view: 1401, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In malaria, rosetting phenomenon is a condition where a Plasmodium-infected erythrocyte stably adheres to at least an uninfected erythrocyte. This phenomenon that occurs in all species of human malaria parasite is likely to be an immune escape mechanism for the parasite. However, it has been associated with malaria pathogenesis, possibly ...
    Maintenance and Quantitative Phenotyping of the Oomycete-plant Model Pathosystem Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidisArabidopsis
    Authors:  Fang-Yu Hwu and Martin Parniske, date: 06/20/2020, view: 1305, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The interaction between the host plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and the oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) is an established model system for the study of an obligate biotrophic downy mildew interaction. The evaluation of the developmental success of Hpa is often based on the quantification ...
    Quantification of Bacteria Residing in Caenorhabditis elegans Intestine
    Authors:  M. Fernanda Palominos and Andrea Calixto, date: 05/05/2020, view: 1642, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Quantification of intestinal colonization by pathogenic or commensal bacteria constitute a critical part of the analysis to understand host-microbe interactions during different time points of their interplay. Here we detail a method to isolate non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacteria from C. elegans intestines, and classify gut phenotypes ...
    Zebrafish Bacterial Infection Assay to Study Host-Pathogen Interactions
    Authors:  Faiza Basheer, Clifford Liongue and Alister C Ward, date: 03/05/2020, view: 1679, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The study of host-pathogen interactions has improved our understanding of both pathogenesis and the response of the host to infection, including both innate and adaptive responses. Neutrophils and macrophages represent the first line of innate host defense against any infection. The zebrafish is an ideal model to study the response of these cells ...
    Transcervical Mouse Infections with Chlamydia trachomatis and Determination of Bacterial Burden
    Authors:  Karthika Rajeeve and Rajeeve Sivadasan, date: 02/05/2020, view: 2063, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate human pathogen. It infects the genital tract of humans ascending into the fallopian tube, exacerbated by chronic pelvic pain, pelvic inflammatory disease, and fallopian tube scaring resulting in infertility and other malignancies. The major hurdle in controlling chlamydial spread is that the ...
    Study of Microbial Extracellular Vesicles: Separation by Density Gradients, Protection Assays and Labelling for Live Tracking
    [Abstract] Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by all domains of life including Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. EVs are critical for cellular physiology and contain varied cargo: virulence factors, cell wall remodeling enzymes, extracellular matrix components and even nucleic acids and metabolites. While various protocols for isolating EVs have been ...
    A Microbial Bioassay for Direct Contact Assessment of Soil Toxicity Based on Oxygen Consumption of Sulfur Oxidizing Bacteria
    Authors:  Ebenezer Ashun, Umair Ali Toor, Heonseop Eom and Sang-Eun Oh, date: 01/05/2020, view: 1692, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] A new direct contact assessment of soil toxicity using sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) is proposed for analyzing the toxicity of soils. The proposed method is based on the ability of SOB to oxidize elemental sulfur to sulfuric acid in the presence of oxygen. Since sulfate ions are produced from sulfur by SOB oxidation activity, changes in ...

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