Protocols in Current Issue
    An Improved Bioassay to Study Arabidopsis Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) Against Bacterial Pathogens and Insect Pests
    Authors:  Nicolás M. Cecchini, Yi Song, Suruchi Roychoudhry, Jean T. Greenberg and Cara H. Haney, date: 05/20/2019, view: 3148, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The plant immune system is essential for plants to perceive and defend against bacterial, fungal and insect pests and pathogens. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) is a systemic immune response that occurs upon root colonization by beneficial microbes. A well-studied model for ISR is the association of specific beneficial strains of Pseudomonas ...
    In vitro Cell Wall Stress Assay for Fusarium oxysporum
    Authors:  Elena Pérez-Nadales and Antonio Di Pietro, date: 09/05/2016, view: 6996, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In this protocol we describe a cell wall stress assay for the fungal pathogen F. oxysporum, based on exposure to the two anionic dyes Calcofluor White (CFW) and Congo Red (CR). Both compounds have been used to exert stress upon the fungal cell wall in vitro (Perez-Nadales and Di Pietro, 2015; Perez-Nadales and Di Pietro, 2011; ...
    XTT Assay of Antifungal Activity
    Authors:  Flávio V. Loures and Stuart M. Levitz, date: 08/05/2015, view: 7191, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] XTT assay is a colorimetric method that uses the tetrazolium dye, 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphenyl)-(2H)-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) to quantify cell-mediated damage to fungi. Actively respiring fungal cells convert the water-soluble XTT to a water-soluble, orange colored formazan product (Meshulam et al., 1995). Here, we ...
    Coagulation Assay
    Authors:  Praveen Papareddy, Martina Kalle and Artur Schmidtchen, date: 10/05/2014, view: 10581, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Clotting times can be measured by using citrate plasma. The intrinsic pathway of coagulation is measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), the extrinsic pathway of coagulation, monitored by measuring the prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin-induced fibrin-network formation (thrombin clotting time; TCT).
    Minimal Bactericidal Concentration for Biofilms (MBC-B)
    Authors:  Nicole Billings and Katharina Ribbeck, date: 05/05/2014, view: 9479, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] A biofilm is a multicellular consortium of surface associated microbes surrounded by a hydrated, extracellular polymer matrix. The biofilm matrix plays a critical role in preventing desiccation, acquiring nutrients, and provides community protection from environmental assaults. Importantly, biofilms are significantly more resistant to ...
    Bioassay of Extracts of the Endophytic Fungi
    Authors:  Susheel Kumar and Nutan Kaushik, date: 10/05/2013, view: 7343, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Many of the microbes including fungi produce metabolites possessing antifungal activity and in some cases fungal metabolites are main cause of antifungal activity resulted by fungus. To infer that antifungal activity is due to fungal metabolites, there is a need to develop a repeatable procedure to assay these metabolites. Here we are presenting ...
    Batch Culture Fermentation of Endophytic Fungi and Extraction of Their Metabolites
    Authors:  Susheel Kumar and Nutan Kaushik, date: 10/05/2013, view: 11753, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Antibiosis is one of the possible modes of action shown by endophytic fungi having antifungal activity. To test if antifungal activity in endophytic fungi is due to antibiosis, assay of the metabolites of endophytic fungi was needed. To obtain metabolites for bioassay batch culture fermentation and extraction of metabolites was done. Fungus was ...

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