Biochemistry

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Isolation, BODIPY Labeling and Uptake of Exosomes in Hepatic Stellate Cells
    Author:  Shubham Shrivastava, date: 12/05/2017, view: 4590, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] Exosomes have emerged as an important mediator of intercellular communication. They are present in extracellular milieu and therefore, easily accessible by neighboring or distant cells. They carry mRNA, microRNAs and proteins within their vesicles and once internalized by recipient cells; they can modulate multiple signaling pathways with ...
    Xanthoferrin Siderophore Estimation from the Cell-free Culture Supernatants of Different Xanthomonas Strains by HPLC
    [Abstract] Xanthomonads can scavenge iron from the extracellular environment by secreting the siderophores, which are synthesized by the proteins encoded by xss (Xanthomonas siderophore synthesis) gene cluster. The siderophore production varies among xanthomonads in response to a limited supply of iron where Xanthomonas ...
    Loading of Extracellular Vesicles with Chemically Stabilized Hydrophobic siRNAs for the Treatment of Disease in the Central Nervous System
    Authors:  Reka A. Haraszti, Andrew Coles, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova and Marie-Cécile Didiot, date: 06/20/2017, view: 4491, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Efficient delivery of oligonucleotide therapeutics, i.e., siRNAs, to the central nervous system represents a significant barrier to their clinical advancement for the treatment of neurological disorders. Small, endogenous extracellular vesicles were shown to be able to transport lipids, proteins and RNA between cells, including neurons. ...
    Root Aliphatic Suberin Analysis Using Non-extraction or Solvent-extraction Methods
    Authors:  Camille Delude, Sollapura J. Vishwanath, Owen Rowland and Frédéric Domergue, date: 06/20/2017, view: 4270, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] Here we describe both non-extraction and solvent-extraction methods for root aliphatic suberin analysis. The non-extraction method is fast as roots are directly depolymerized using acidic transmethylation. However, suberin aliphatic components are isolated together with all the other acyl chains making up the lipids (e.g., membranes) ...
    Procedure for Rhamnolipids Quantification Using Methylene-blue
    Authors:  Tsiry Rasamiravaka, Olivier M. Vandeputte and Mondher El Jaziri, date: 04/05/2016, view: 8720, Q&A: 2
    [Abstract] Rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) represent a group of biosurfactants with various applications (e.g., bioremediation of oil spills, cosmetics, detergents and cleaners). The commonly used colorimetric methods for rhamnolipid quantification, including anthrone, phenol−sulfuric acid and ...
    Protocol for Macrophage Depletion from Mice
    Authors:  Zuoxiang Xiao and Qun Jiang, date: 06/05/2014, view: 12833, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Macrophage depletion has been used extensively to study autoimmune disease and more recently in tumor models. The clodronate-containing liposomes will be recognized as foreign particles and get engulfed by macrophages upon dosing into the animal by the chosen routes. Consequently, macrophages that have engulfed liposomes will all be destroyed by ...
    Preparation of Outer Membrane Vesicle from Escherichia coli
    [Abstract] Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spherical bilayered phospholipids of 20-200 nm in size produced from all Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria investigated to date. Previous biochemical and proteomic studies have revealed that the Gram-negative bacteria-derived OMVs are composed of various components like outer membrane proteins, ...
    Analysis of Flower Cuticular Waxes and Cutin Monomers
    Authors:  Anna Smirnova, Jana Leide and Markus Riederer, date: 09/20/2013, view: 6544, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Here we describe procedures for the flower cuticular waxes extraction, modification and subsequent qualitative and quantitative analysis by gas-chromotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas-chromotography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID), accordingly. To characterize flower cutin monomers two experimental setup are described: (i) ...
    Wax Analysis of Stem and Rosette Leaves in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Authors:  Tegan M Haslam and Ljerka Kunst, date: 06/05/2013, view: 9341, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] The primary aerial surfaces of all land plants are coated by a lipidic cuticle, which restricts non-stomatal water loss and protects the plant from pathogens, herbivores, and ultraviolet radiation. The cuticle is made up of two components: cutin, a polymer of hydroxy- and epoxy- long-chain fatty acid derivatives and glycerol, and cuticular waxes, ...



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