Microbiology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Preparation of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Larvae for the Study of Host Skin Response
    Authors:  Tiffany Bouchery, Gillian Coakley and Nicola L. Harris, date: 12/20/2020, view: 375, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Hookworms are skin penetrating parasites, however in the laboratory the hookworm model Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, the parasite is traditionally administered subcutaneously bypassing the skin (epidermis and dermis). Here, we describe two complementary approaches for infecting mice with N. brasiliensis in order to study the skin immune responses.

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    Pea Aphid Rearing, Bacterial Infection and Hemocyte Phagocytosis Assay
    Authors:  Li Ma, Lu Liu and Zhiqiang Lu, date: 12/20/2020, view: 404, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract]

    Insects rely on the simple but effective innate immune system to combat infection. Cellular and humoral responses are interconnected and synergistic in insects’ innate immune system. Phagocytosis is one major cellular response. It is difficult to collect clean hemolymph from the small insect like pea aphid. Here, we provide a practicable

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    Generating Three-dimensional Human Granulomas in vitro to Study Mycobacterium tuberculosis-host Interaction
    Authors:  Ainhoa Arbués, Michael Kammüller and Damien Portevin, date: 11/20/2020, view: 690, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Granulomas are organized multicellular structures that constitute the hallmark of an infection by the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). A better understanding of the complex host-Mtb interactions within the granuloma’s environment may lead to new therapeutic or preventive tools to improve the control of the ...
    Giant Mimiviridae CsCl Purification Protocol
    Authors:  Lionel Bertaux, Audrey Lartigue and Sandra Jeudy, date: 11/20/2020, view: 522, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] While different giant viruses’ purification protocols are available, they are not fully described and they use sucrose gradient that does not reach an equilibrium. Here, we report a protocol for the purification of members of the Mimiviridae family virions resulting from Acanthamoeaba castellanii infections. Viruses are ...
    A Quick Method for Screening Biocontrol Efficacy of Bacterial Isolates against Bacterial Wilt Pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in Tomato
    Authors:  Heena Agarwal, Bhaskar Dowarah and Niraj Agarwala, date: 11/20/2020, view: 915, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract]

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a bacterial phytopathogen able to cause bacterial wilt disease in more than 200 plant species. Plant disease biocontrol strategies are used for controlling this disease and tomato is used as a model plant to conduct R. solanacearum associated studies. Conventional screening methods such as seed bacterization, soil

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    Isolation and CryoTEM of Phages Infecting Bacterial Wine Spoilers
    [Abstract]

    With the objective to isolate phages infecting wine bacterial spoilers, we designed a method for the isolation and purification of phages infecting grape-associated bacteria. The method proved successful to isolate GC1 tectivirus infecting the acetic acid bacterium Gluconobacter cerinus. The isolated phage represents a new genus within the

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    Murine Acute Pneumonia Model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection
    Authors:  Xiaolei Pan and Weihui Wu, date: 11/05/2020, view: 545, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Animal infection models play significant roles in studying bacterial pathogenic mechanisms, host pathogen interaction as well as evaluating drug and vaccine efficacies. We have been utilizing an acute pneumonia model to study bacterial colonization in lungs and assess virulence to the host by determination of bacterial loads and survival assays, ...
    Acidified Blue Ink-staining Procedure for the Observation of Fungal Structures Inside Roots of Two Disparate Plant Lineages
    Authors:  Jill Kowal, Elena Arrigoni and Sophie Lane, date: 10/20/2020, view: 496, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Identifying microscopic mycorrhizal fungal structures in roots, i.e., hyphae, vesicles and arbuscules, requires root staining procedures that are often time consuming and involves chemicals known to present health risks from exposure. By modifying established protocols, our root staining method stains roots using a safe ink- and ...
    TetR Regulated in vivo Repression Technology to Identify Conditional Gene Silencing in Genetically Engineerable Bacteria Using Vibrio cholerae Murine Infections as Model System
    Authors:  Franz G. Zingl, Fabian Mitterer, Himadri B. Thapa and Stefan Schild, date: 10/05/2020, view: 515, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Investigation of bacterial gene regulation upon environmental changes is still a challenging task. For example, Vibrio cholerae, a pathogen of the human gastrointestinal tract, faces diverse transient conditions in different compartments upon oral ingestion. Genetic reporter systems have been demonstrated to be extremely powerful tools to ...
    Determination of Intracellular Ca2+ Concentration in the Human Pathogens Trypanosomatids Leishmania mexicana and Trypanosoma cruzi by the Use of the Fluorescent Ca2+ Indicator Fura-2
    Authors:  Andre Rey-Cibati, Mariana Valladares-Delgado and Gustavo Benaim, date: 09/20/2020, view: 1158, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Ca2+ is an essential signaling messenger in all eukariotic cells, playing a pivotal role in many cellular functions as cell growth control (differentiation, fertilization and apoptosis), secretion, gene expression, enzyme regulation, among many others. This basic premise includes trypanosomatids as Trypanosoma cruzi and various ...



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