Microbiology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Model of Chemotherapy-associated Mucositis and Oral Opportunistic Infections
    Authors:  Takanori Sobue, Martinna Bertolini, Angela Thompson and Anna Dongari-Bagtzoglou, date: 11/05/2019, view: 119, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Oral mucositis is a common complication of cancer chemotherapy treatment. Because of the lack of relevant oral mucositis experimental models, it is not clear how chemotherapeutic agents injure the oral mucosa and if commensal microorganisms accelerate tissue damage. We developed an organotypic oral mucosa model that mimics cellular responses ...
    Experimental Setup for a Diffusion Bioreactor to Isolate Unculturable Soil Bacteria
    Authors:  Dhiraj Kumar Chaudhary and Jaisoo Kim, date: 10/05/2019, view: 390, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Unculturable bacteria are those bacteria which proliferate in their native habitat but unable to grow or thrive in the normal laboratory media and conditions. The molecular techniques have revealed the significance of these uncultured bacteria in terms of their functional diversity and potential to produce secondary metabolites. To achieve these ...
    Cryo-transmission Electron Microscopy of Outer-inner Membrane Vesicles Naturally Secreted by Gram-negative Pathogenic Bacteria
    [Abstract] A protocol was developed to visualize and analyze the structure of membrane vesicles (MVs) from Gram-negative bacteria. It is now accepted that these micrometric spherical vesicles are commonly produced by cells from all three domains of life, so the protocol could be useful in the study of vesicles produced by eukaryotes and archaea as well as ...
    Yeast Single-cell RNA-seq, Cell by Cell and Step by Step
    [Abstract] Single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) has become an established method for uncovering the intrinsic complexity within populations. Even within seemingly homogenous populations of isogenic yeast cells, there is a high degree of heterogeneity that originates from a compact and pervasively transcribed genome. Research with microorganisms such as yeast ...
    Non-invasive Quantification of Cell Wall Porosity by Fluorescence Quenching Microscopy
    Authors:  Xiaohui Liu, Thomas Günther Pomorski and Johannes Liesche, date: 08/20/2019, view: 434, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] All bacteria, fungi and plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall. This complex network of polysaccharides and glycoproteins provides mechanical support, defines cell shape, controls cell growth and influences the exchange of substances between the cell and its surroundings. Despite its name, the cell wall is a flexible, dynamic structure. ...
    Optimized Protocol for the Incorporation of FDAA (HADA Labeling) for in situ Labeling of Peptidoglycan
    Authors:  Katharina Peters, Manuel Pazos, Michael S. VanNieuwenhze and Waldemar Vollmer, date: 08/05/2019, view: 696, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The essential peptidoglycan (PG) layer surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane in nearly all bacteria. It is needed to maintain the shape of the cell and protect it from lysis due to high turgor. Growth of the PG layer is a complex process that involves the activities of PG synthases and hydrolases during elongation and cell division. PG growth sites ...
    Endocytosis Detection in Magnaporthe oryzae
    Authors:  Muxing Liu and Zhengguang Zhang, date: 08/05/2019, view: 485, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Endocytosis is an intracellular trafficking pathway that occurs in nutrient uptake, signal transduction and reconstruction of cell polarity and is conserved in eukaryotic cells. In fungi, endocytosis plays crucial roles in the physiology of hyphal growth and pathogenicity. vidence for endocytosis in filamentous fungi is detected by the ...
    Detachment Procedure of Bacteria from Atmospheric Particles for Flow-cytometry Counting
    Authors:  Carolina M. Araya, Alberto Cazorla and Isabel Reche, date: 06/20/2019, view: 846, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The protocol separates bacteria from atmospheric particles, obtaining with greater precision their abundance in the atmospheric deposition. This procedure is similar to the one used to separate bacteria in streambed sediments. The detachment procedure consists of a chemical treatment with sodium pyrophosphate and Tween 20 and a physical treatment ...
    Enterovirus Competition Assay to Assess Replication Fitness
    Authors:  Valeria Lulla and Andrew E. Firth, date: 05/20/2019, view: 1038, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In virology the difference between the fitness of two viruses can be determined by using various methods, such as virus titer, growth curve analysis, measurement of virus infectivity, analysis of produced RNA copies and viral protein production. However, for closely performing viruses, it is often very hard to distinguish the differences. In vitro ...
    TZA, a Sensitive Reporter Cell-based Assay to Accurately and Rapidly Quantify Inducible, Replication-competent Latent HIV-1 from Resting CD4+ T Cells
    Authors:  Anwesha Sanyal, Vatsala S. Rangachar and Phalguni Gupta, date: 05/20/2019, view: 1551, Q&A: 1
    [Abstract] The latent HIV-1 viral reservoir in resting CD4+ (rCD4+) T cells represents a major barrier to an HIV-1 cure. There is an ongoing effort to identify therapeutic approaches that will eliminate or reduce the size of this reservoir. However, clinical investigators lack an assay to determine whether or not a decrease in the ...



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