Protocols in Current Issue
    Non-separate Mouse Sclerochoroid/RPE/Retina Staining and Whole Mount for the Integral Observation of Subretinal Layer
    Authors:  Sung-Jin Lee and Soo-Young Kim, date: 01/05/2021, view: 246, Q&A: 0

    The subretinal layer between retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptors is a region involved in inflammation and angiogenesis during the procession of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. The current protocols of whole mounts (retina and RPE) are unable to address the intact view of the subretinal layer because the

    Nestlet Shredding and Nest Building Tests to Assess Features of Psychiatric Disorders in Mice
    Authors:  Fabian Dorninger, Gerhard Zeitler and Johannes Berger, date: 12/20/2020, view: 445, Q&A: 0

    Mimicking the various facets of human psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in animal models is a challenging task. Nevertheless, mice have emerged as a widely used model system to study pathophysiology and treatment strategies for these diseases. However, the corresponding behavioral tests are often elaborate and require extensive

    Use of Optogenetic Amyloid-β to Monitor Protein Aggregation in Drosophila melanogaster, Danio rerio and Caenorhabditis elegans

    Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) has long been associated with accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques (Aβ) originating from the Amyloid Precursor Protein. Plaques have, however, been discovered in healthy individuals and not all AD brains show plaques, suggesting that extracellular Aβ aggregates may play a smaller role than

    Maternal Immune Activation with the Viral Mimetic Poly:IC in Pregnant Rats
    Authors:  Thaisa Meira Sandini, Quentin Greba, Brittney Rose Lins and John George Howland, date: 11/20/2020, view: 613, Q&A: 0

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) is increasingly well appreciated as an environmental risk factor for some psychiatric disorders. Administration of proinflammatory compounds such as the synthetic double-stranded RNA molecule polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) to pregnant rodents results in the release of proinflammatory cytokines in the

    An Operant Conditioning Model Combined with a Chemogenetic Approach to Study the Neurobiology of Food Addiction in Mice
    Authors:  Elena Martín-García, Laura Domingo-Rodriguez and Rafael Maldonado, date: 10/05/2020, view: 638, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The study of food addiction comprises 3 hallmarks that include the persistence to response without an outcome, the strong motivation for palatable food, and the loss of inhibitory control over food intake that leads to compulsive behavior in addicted individuals. The complex multifactorial nature of this disorder and the unknown neurobiological ...
    Measuring Breathing Patterns in Mice Using Whole-body Plethysmography
    [Abstract] Respiratory dysfunction is among the main cause of severe and fatal pathologies worldwide. The use of effective experimental models and methodologies for the study of the pulmonary pathophysiology is necessary to prevent, control and cure these diseases. Plethysmography, a technique for the assessment of lung function, has been widely applied in ...
    Integration of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (hiPSC)-Derived Neurons into Rat Brain
    Authors:  Xiling Yin, Ted M. Dawson and Valina L. Dawson, date: 09/05/2020, view: 1215, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Human neuron transplantation offers novel opportunities for modeling human neurologic diseases and potentially replacement therapies. However, the complex structure of the human cerebral cortex, which is organized in six layers with tightly interconnected excitatory and inhibitory neuronal networks, presents significant challenges for in vivo ...
    Karyopherin-β2 Inhibits and Reverses Aggregation and Liquid-liquid Phase Separation of the ALS/FTD-Associated Protein FUS
    Authors:  Emma Robinson, James Shorter and Lin Guo, date: 08/20/2020, view: 1255, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] The study of RNA-binding proteins (RBP) offers insight into the mechanisms of pathologic protein aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases. We developed a protocol for purifying an RBP FUS and a nuclear import receptor (NIR) Kapβ2 and testing the ability of Kapβ2 to mitigate FUS aggregation and liquid-liquid phase separation.
    Co-culture of Murine Neurons Using a Microfluidic Device for The Study of Tau Misfolding Propagation
    [Abstract] The deposition of misfolded, aggregated tau protein is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases, collectively termed “tauopathies”. Tau pathology spreads throughout the brain along connected pathways in a prion-like manner. The process of tau pathology propagation across circuits is a focus of intense research and has been investigated in ...
    In vivo Blood-brain Barrier Permeability Assays Using Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin
    Authors:  Michael R. Mazzucco, Timothy Vartanian and Jennifer R. Linden, date: 08/05/2020, view: 1155, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In order for the brain to function properly, a carefully orchestrated homeostasis must be maintained. To help regulate this delicate balance, the brain has developed a highly selective blood-brain barrier (BBB). Under normal conditions, the BBB excludes harmful blood-borne material from the brain parenchyma. However, numerous neuropathological ...

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