Cell Biology

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    Protocols in Current Issue
    Inducing Alcohol Dependence in Rats Using Chronic Intermittent Exposure to Alcohol Vapor
    Authors:  Elizabeth M. Avegno and Nicholas W. Gilpin, date: 05/05/2019, view: 227, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a significant public health and economic burden and is often characterized by repeated bouts of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal. Virtually all organ systems are impacted by chronic alcohol exposure. These effects can be investigated using the rat as a model organism; however, rats typically will not ...
    Immunofluorescence Staining of WT-1/Podocalyxin on Mouse Kidney Sections
    Authors:  Carole Henique, Olivia Lenoir and Pierre-Louis Tharaux, date: 04/20/2019, view: 356, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In glomerular diseases, podocytes are one type of cells involved in dysfunction of glomerular filtration. In these conditions, podocyte proteins expression change. Therefore, immunofluorescent staining of podocytes can be performed to visualize podocyte localization of proteins of interest. In this protocol, we detail a method to stain podocytes ...
    Detection of mRNA by Whole Mount in situ Hybridization and DNA Extraction for Genotyping of Zebrafish Embryos
    Authors:  Rachna Narayanan and Andrew C. Oates, date: 03/20/2019, view: 1152, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In situ hybridization is used to visualize the spatial distribution of gene transcripts in tissues and in embryos, providing important information about disease and development. Current methods involve the use of complementary riboprobes incorporating non-radioactive labels that can be detected by immunohistochemistry and coupled to ...
    Acute Cerebellar Slice Preparation Using a Tissue Chopper
    Authors:  Yubin Wang and Michel Baudry, date: 03/05/2019, view: 496, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Acute cerebellar slices are widely used among neuroscientists to study the properties of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission as well as intracellular signaling pathways involved in their regulation in cerebellum. The cerebellar cortex presents a well-organized circuitry, and several neuronal pathways can be stimulated and recorded ...
    An Improved Staining Method for Low Signal LacZ Reporter Detection in Mouse Embryos
    Authors:  Xiaopeng Shen, Feng Xu, Shen Wu, Meng Li, Jingyi Zhang, Rui Liang and Yu Liu, date: 03/05/2019, view: 566, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] In many fields of biology, especially in the field of developmental biology, LacZ reporter staining is an approach used to monitor gene expression patterns. In the LacZ reporter system, the LacZ gene is inserted in the endogenous location of the target gene via gene knock-in or by constructing a transgenic cassette in ...
    A New Efficient Method for Measuring Oxygen Consumption Rate Directly ex vivo in Human Epidermal Biopsies
    Authors:  Daniel Schniertshauer, Daniel Gebhard and Jörg Bergemann, date: 03/05/2019, view: 572, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Skin cells are constantly exposed to environmental influences such as air pollution, chemicals, pathogens and UV radiation. UV radiation can damage different biological structures, but most importantly cellular DNA. Mitochondria contain their own genome and accumulate UV-induced DNA mutations to a large extent. This can result, e.g., in ...
    Immunohistochemical Staining of TLR4 in Human Skeletal Muscle Samples
    Authors:  Daniela Verzola, Samantha Milanesi, Francesca Costigliolo and Giacomo Garibotto, date: 01/20/2019, view: 821, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Growing evidence suggests the involvement of TLR4, a receptor in the innate immune system, in muscle loss in uremia. Recently, we have evaluated TLR4 in human skeletal muscle from chronic kidney disease patients, by immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Unlike the commonly-used Western blot method, immunohistochemistry allows for the ...
    Insulin Tolerance Test under Anaesthesia to Measure Tissue-specific Insulin-stimulated Glucose Disposal
    [Abstract] Insulin resistance is a pathophysiological state defined by impaired responses to insulin and is a risk factor for several metabolic diseases, most notably type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance occurs in insulin target tissues including liver, adipose and skeletal muscle. Methods such as insulin tolerance tests and hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic ...
    A Method for Culturing Mouse Whisker Follicles to Study Circadian Rhythms ex vivo
    Authors:  Atsuhiro Nishida, Yoshiki Miyawaki, Koichi Node and Makoto Akashi, date: 01/20/2019, view: 793, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Ex vivo tissue-culture experiments are often performed in the field of circadian biology. The major aim of these experiments is to evaluate circadian characteristics such as period length at the tissue-autonomous level by monitoring clock gene expression in real time. This culture method is also used to examine the tissue specificity of ...
    Partial Transection of Adult Rat Optic Nerve as a Model of Secondary Degeneration in the Central Nervous System
    Authors:  Carole A Bartlett and Melinda Fitzgerald, date: 12/20/2018, view: 765, Q&A: 0
    [Abstract] Injury to the central nervous system is characterized by damage that spreads from the initial point of impact into the surrounding adjacent tissue, in a phenomenon referred to as secondary degeneration. The optic nerve can be used to effectively model injury and secondary degeneration to white matter tracts. Partial transection of the dorsal ...



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