• Volume 10, 2020
  • Volume 9, 2019
  • Volume 8, 2018
  • Volume 7, 2017
  • Volume 6, 2016
  • Volume 5, 2015
  • Volume 4, 2014
  • Volume 3, 2013
  • Volume 2, 2012
  • Volume 1, 2011

Past Issues in 2020

Volume: 10 Issue: 11

Biochemistry

Isolating Multiple Extracellular Vesicles Subsets, Including Exosomes and Membrane Vesicles, from Bovine Milk Using Sodium Citrate and Differential Ultracentrifugation Authors:  Abderrahim Benmoussa, Sara Michel, Caroline Gilbert and Patrick Provost, date: 06/05/2020, view: 876, Q&A: 0
Milk is a complex fluid that contains various types of proteins and extracellular vesicles (EVs). Some proteins can mingle with EVs, and interfere with their isolation. Among these proteins, caseins form micelles of a size comparable to milk EVs, and can thus be co-isolated with EVs. Preliminary steps that affect milk are crucial for EV isolation ...
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Biochemical Pulldown of mRNAs and Long Noncoding RNAs from Cellular Lysates Coupled with Mass Spectrometry to Identify Protein Binding Partners Authors:  Anca F. Savulescu, Stoyan Stoychev, Sipho Mamputha and Musa M. Mhlanga, date: 06/05/2020, view: 806, Q&A: 0
RNA binding proteins (RBPs) interact with cellular mRNAs, controlling various steps throughout the lifetime of these transcripts, including transcription, cellular transport, subcellular localization, translation and degradation. In addition to binding mRNA transcripts, a growing number of RBPs are shown to bind long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), ...
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Cell Biology

Extracellular Vesicles Tracking and Quantification Using CT and Optical Imaging in Rats Authors:  Shaowei Guo, Oshra Betzer, Nisim Perets, Shira Landau, Daniel Offen, Rachela Popovtzer and Shulamit Levenberg, date: 06/05/2020, view: 812, Q&A: 0
Exosomes, a subtype of extracellular vesicles, are nanovesicles of endocytic origin. Exosomes contain a plethora of proteins, lipids, and genetic materials of parent cells to facilitate intercellular communications. Tracking exosomes in vivo is fundamentally important to understand their biodistribution pattern and the mechanism of ...
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Ex vivo Culture Assay Using Human Hair Follicles to Study Circadian Characteristics Authors:  Atsuhiro Nishida, Yoshiki Miyawaki, Koichi Node and Makoto Akashi, date: 06/05/2020, view: 471, Q&A: 0
Ex vivo culture assays of biopsy specimens are advantageous for the experimental evaluation of human circadian characteristics. We developed a simple and non-invasive experimental evaluation method for monitoring the expression of circadian clock genes in an ex vivo culture assay using human hair follicles. This method imposes ...
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Developmental Biology

FRET Reporter Assays for cAMP and Calcium in a 96-well Format Using Genetically Encoded Biosensors Expressed in Living Cells Authors:  Brandon T. Milliken, Robert P. Doyle, George G. Holz and Oleg G. Chepurny, date: 06/05/2020, view: 651, Q&A: 0
Stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) by hormones and neurotransmitters elicits cellular responses, many of which result from alterations in the concentrations of cytosolic cAMP and Ca2+. Here, we describe a microplate reader fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay that uses the genetically encoded biosensors ...
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Primed Track: Reliable Volumetric Single-cell Tracking and Lineage Tracing of Living Specimen with Dual-labeling Approaches Authors:  Maaike Welling, Konstantinos Kalyviotis and Periklis Pantazis, date: 06/05/2020, view: 560, Q&A: 0
Mammalian embryonic development starts with a single fertilized zygote that develops into a blastocyst embryo consisting of three cell types that evolve into either embryonic or extra-embryonic tissues. Lineage tracing of these cells can provide important information about the molecular and cellular dynamics contributing to fate allocation during ...
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Immunology

RNA Extraction from Ears and Draining Lymph Nodes of Mice Infected with Leishmania amazonensis Authors:  Emilie Giraud and Evie Melanitou, date: 06/05/2020, view: 457, Q&A: 0
Parasites of the genus Leishmania infect the mammalian hosts, including mice and humans and cause cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis depending upon the parasite species transmitted by the vector sandfly. Leishmania amazonensis is one of the Leishmania species responsible for the cutaneous form of the disease. We have ...
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Isolation and High Throughput Flow Cytometric Apoptosis Assay of Human Neutrophils to Enable Compound Library Screening Authors:  K. D. Herman, A. Rahman and L. R. Prince, date: 06/05/2020, view: 540, Q&A: 0
The study of human neutrophils in vitro is challenging due to their short half-life and propensity for activation. However, with careful handling and manipulation in the laboratory, they can be a powerful tool to investigate immune responses in health and disease. Here we describe a method for the isolation of human neutrophils from ...
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Methodology for in vitro Assessment of Human T Cell Activation and Blockade Authors:  Joseph R. Podojil, Igal Ifergan, Ming-Yi Chiang, Joshua J. Meeks and Stephen D. Miller, date: 06/05/2020, view: 605, Q&A: 0
Methods to test both the functionality and mechanism of action for human recombinant proteins and antibodies in vitro have been limited by multiple factors. To test the functionality of a recombinant protein or antibody, the receptor, the receptor-associated ligand, or both must be expressed by the cells present within the in vitro ...
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Microbiology

Differential Fractionation of Erythrocytes Infected by Plasmodium berghei Authors:  Bénédicte Gnangnon, Véronique Peucelle and Christine Pierrot, date: 06/05/2020, view: 376, Q&A: 0
The study of host/pathogen interactions at the cellular level during Plasmodium intra-erythrocytic cycle requires differential extraction techniques aiming to analyze the different compartments of the infected cell. Various protocols have been proposed in the literature to study specific compartments and/or membranes in the infected ...
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Molecular Biology

Mouse Adipose Tissue Protein Extraction Authors:  Yu A. An and Philipp E. Scherer, date: 06/05/2020, view: 667, Q&A: 0
As obesity becomes a global epidemic, the metabolism research field is increasingly focusing on studying the physiological and pathological roles of adipose tissues (AT). However, extracting proteins from AT is challenging due to abundant fat content of intracellular lipid droplets. Several commercial kits for extraction of AT proteins are ...
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Neuroscience

Enriched Environment Procedures for Rodents: Creating a Standardized Protocol for Diverse Enrichment to Improve Consistency across Research Studies Authors:  Bruce C. Harland and John C. Dalrymple-Alford, date: 06/05/2020, view: 368, Q&A: 0
Exposure to environmental enrichment has beneficial effects on learning and memory, diverse neurobiological effects, and promotes recovery of function after brain injury. The effect of enrichment is produced by a combination of increased social interaction, physical activity, spatial complexity, and novelty. Procedures in the literature have, ...
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Precise Targeting of Single Microelectrodes to Orientation Pinwheel Centers Authors:  Xue Mei Song, Ming Li, Tao Xu, Dewen Hu and Anna Wang Roe, date: 06/05/2020, view: 343, Q&A: 0
In the mammalian visual system, early stages of visual form perception begin with orientation selective neurons in primary visual cortex (V1). In many species (including humans, monkeys, tree shrews, cats, and ferrets), these neurons are organized in pinwheel-like orientation columns. To study the functional organization within orientation ...
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Plant Science

Safe DNA-extraction Protocol Suitable for Studying Tree-fungus Interactions Authors:  Susanna Keriö, Eeva Terhonen and Jared M. LeBoldus, date: 06/05/2020, view: 971, Q&A: 0
We present a safe and low-cost method suitable for DNA extraction from mycelium and tree tissue samples. After sample preparation, the extraction takes about 60 min. Method performance was tested by extracting DNA from various tree tissue samples and from mycelium grown on solid and liquid media. DNA was extracted from juvenile and mature host ...
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Determination of Ureides Content in Plant Tissues Author:  Ignacio Lescano, date: 06/05/2020, view: 585, Q&A: 0
The ureides allantoin and allantoate are the main organic nitrogen compounds transported in several legumes, predominantly from N2 fixation. Moreover, recent studies point out a remarkable role for allantoin during several stress responses of plants other than legumes. The goal of this protocol is to determine ureides concentration in ...
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